Category Archives: coffee

Cup

A cup is a small open container used for drinking and carrying drinks.[1][2] It may be made of wood, plastic, glass, clay, metal, stone, china or other materials,[3] and may have a stem, handles or other adornments. Cups are used for quenching thirst across a wide range of cultures and social classes,[4] and different styles of cups may be used for different liquids or in different situations.[5]

Cups have been used for thousands of years for the purpose of carrying food and drink, as well as for decoration.[6] They may also be used in certain cultural rituals and to hold objects not intended for drinking such as coin.

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Types[edit]

Names for different types of cups vary regionally and may overlap. Any transparent cup, regardless of actual composition, is likely to be called a “glass”; therefore, while a cup made of paper is a “paper cup”, a transparent one for drinking shots is called a “shot glass”, instead.

Cups for hot beverages[edit]

Teacups on saucers

While in theory, most cups are well suited to hold drinkable liquids, hot drinks like tea are generally served in either insulated cups or porcelain teacups.

Disposable cups[edit]

Disposable cups are intended to be used only once. They are often used by fast-food restaurants and coffee shops to serve beverages. Institutions that provide drinking water, such as offices and hospitals, may also use disposable cups for sanitary reasons.

Cups for alcoholic beverages[edit]

Some styles of cups are used primarily for alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, cocktail, and liquor. There are over a dozen distinct styles of cups for drinking beer, depending on the precise variety of beer. The idea that a certain beer should be served in a cup of a certain shape may have been promulgated more for marketing purposes, but there very well may be some basis in fact behind it.[7] Wine glasses also come in different shapes, depending on the color and style of wine that is intended to be served in them.

Cultural significance and use of cups[edit]

Since cups have been an integral part of dining since time immemorial, they have become a valued part of human culture. The shape or image of a cup appears in various places in human cultures. Solo cups (especially red ones) carry strong cultural connotations, especially in America, generally referring to the consumption of alcoholic beverages.[9]

Religious use[edit]

A two-handled Natla (נַטְלָה) cup used for ritual washing in Judaism

In the Christian ritual of Communion, adherents drink from a cup of wine (or a wine substitute) to commemorate the Last Supper of Jesus.[10] A chalice is often used for this purpose.

Ancient Greek religious practices included libations. The rhyton was one cup used for libations.

Culinary use[edit]

The measuring cup, an adaptation of a simple cup, is a standard tool in cooking that has been in use at least as far back as Roman times. Apart from serving as drinking vessels, cups can be used as an alternative to bowls as a receptacle, especially, for soup. Recipes have been published for cooking various dishes in cups in the microwave.[11]

Heraldry[edit]

Chalices are sometimes used in heraldry, especially ecclesiastical heraldry. A Kronkåsa is a type of elaborate wooden cup which was used by the Swedish nobility during the Renaissance.

Child development[edit]

Drinking from a cup is a significant step on a baby’s path to becoming a toddler; it is recommended that children switch from bottles to cups between six months and one year of age.[12][13] Sippy cups are sometimes used for this transition.

Sports trophies[edit]

Many trophies take the form of a cup, often a loving cup. In sports, competitions themselves often take on the name of the cup-shaped trophy awarded.

Many trophies take the form of a large, decorated cup. In the case of the FIFA World Cup or the Sprint Cup Series, the competition itself may grow to take on the name of the trophy that is awarded to the winner. Owing to the common usage of cup-shaped trophies as prizes for the winners, a large number of national and international competitions are called “cups”.[14]

Games[edit]

In Tarot divination, the suit of cups is associated with the element of water and is regarded as symbolizing emotion, intuition, and the soul.[15][16] Cards that feature cups are often associated with love, relationships, fears, and desires.[15][17]

Various cups have been designed so that drinking out of them without spilling is a challenge. These are called puzzle cups.

The cup game involves rhythmically striking plastic cups.[18]

Promotional cups[edit]

In the developed world, cups are often distributed for promotional purposes. For example, a corporation might distribute cups with their logo at a trade show, or a city might hand out cups with slogans promoting recycling. There are companies that provide the service of printing slogans on cups.[19]

Antiquity[edit]

Cups improve on one’s hands for holding liquids

Cups are an obvious improvement on using cupped hands to hold liquids. They have almost certainly been used since before recorded history, and have been found at archaeological sites throughout the world. Prehistoric cups were sometimes fashioned from shells and hollowed out stones.[20]

An ancient stoneware (terracotta) cup from the Sa Huynh culture (modern Viet Nam)

In Mesopotamia, cups were made for a variety of purposes, possibly including the transportation and drinking of alcoholic beverages.[21] There is evidence the Roman Empire may have spread the use of cups throughout Europe, with notable examples including silver cups in Wales and a color-changing glass cup in ancient Thrace.[22][23] In England, cups have been discovered which date back to several thousand years, including the Rillaton Gold Cup, about 3,700 years old. Cups were used in the Americas several centuries prior to the European arrivals.[24] Around the Gulf of Mexico, Native American societies used the Horse conch for drinking cups, among other purposes.[25]

The King’s cup[edit]

Historically, monarchs have been concerned about assassination via poisoning. To avoid this fate, they often used dedicated cups, with cup-bearers to guard them. A “divining cup” was supposed to be able to detect poison. In the Bible, Joseph interprets a dream for Pharaoh‘s cup-bearer,[26] and a silver divining cup plays a key role in his reconciliation with his brothers.

Coffee Maker

Coffeemakers or coffee machines are cooking appliances used to brew coffee. While there are many different types of coffeemakers using a number of different brewing principles, in the most common devices, coffee grounds are placed in a paper or metal filter inside a funnel, which is set over a glass or ceramic coffee pot, a cooking pot in the kettle family. Cold water is poured into a separate chamber, which is then heated up to the boiling point, and directed into the funnel. This is also called automatic drip-brew.

History[edit]

Silver hot water jug, Dublin c1770, using a coffee-pot shape with a higher base.

For hundreds of years, making a cup of coffee was a simple process. Roasted and ground coffee beans were placed in a pot or pan, to which hot water was added, followed by attachment of a lid to commence the infusion process. Pots were designed specifically for brewing coffee, all with the purpose of trying to trap the coffee grounds before the coffee is poured. Typical designs feature a pot with a flat expanded bottom to catch sinking grounds and a sharp pour spout that traps the floating grinds. Other designs feature a wide bulge in the middle of the pot to catch grounds when coffee is poured.

In France, in about 1710, the Infusion brewing process was introduced. This involved submersing the ground coffee, usually enclosed in a linen bag, in hot water and letting it steep or “infuse” until the desired strength brew was achieved. Nevertheless, throughout the 19th and even the early 20th centuries, it was considered adequate to add ground coffee to hot water in a pot or pan, boil it until it smelled right, and pour the brew into a cup.

There were lots of innovations from France in the late 18th century. With help from Jean-Baptiste de Belloy, the Archbishop of Paris, the idea that coffee should not be boiled gained acceptance. The first modern method for making coffee using a coffee filter—drip brewing—is more than 125 years old, and its design had changed little. The biggin, originating in France ca. 1780, was a two-level pot holding coffee in a cloth sock in an upper compartment into which water was poured, to drain through holes in the bottom of the compartment into the coffee pot below. Coffee was then dispensed from a spout on the side of the pot. The quality of the brewed coffee depended on the size of the grounds – too coarse and the coffee was weak; too fine and the water would not drip the filter. A major problem with this approach was that the taste of the cloth filter – whether cotton, burlap or an old sock – transferred to the taste of the coffee. Around the same time, a French inventor developed the “pumping percolator“, in which boiling water in a bottom chamber forces itself up a tube and then trickles (percolates) through the ground coffee back into the bottom chamber. Among other French innovations, Count Rumford, an eccentric American scientist residing in Paris, developed a French Drip Pot with an insulating water jacket to keep the coffee hot. Also, the first metal filter was developed and patented by French inventor.

Product of the Polish company Pol-Ekspres (1930s)

Types[edit]

Vacuum brewers[edit]

Main article: Vacuum coffee maker

Coffee decant poured in a bowl

Vacuum coffee brewer; a Bodum vacuum brewer in which the coffee is drawn back by pressure differential.

Other coffee brewing devices became popular throughout the nineteenth century, including various machines using the vacuum principle. The Napier Vacuum Machine, invented in 1840, was an early example of this type. While generally too complex for everyday use, vacuum devices were prized for producing a clear brew, and were popular up until the middle of the twentieth century.

The principle of a vacuum brewer was to heat water in a lower vessel until expansion forced the contents through a narrow tube into an upper vessel containing ground coffee. When the lower vessel was empty and sufficient brewing time had elapsed, the heat was removed and the resulting vacuum would draw the brewed coffee back through a strainer into the lower chamber, from which it could be decanted. The Bauhaus interpretation of this device can be seen in Gerhard MarcksSintrax coffee maker of 1925.

An early variant technique, called a balance siphon, was to have the two chambers arranged side-by-side on a sort of scale-like device, with a counterweight attached opposite the initial (or heating) chamber. Once the near-boiling water was forced from the heating chamber into the brewing one, the counterweight was activated, causing a spring-loaded snuffer to come down over the flame, thus turning “off” the heat, and allowing the cooled water to return to the original chamber. In this way, a sort of primitive ‘automatic’ brewing method was achieved.

On August 27, 1930, Inez H. Pierce of Chicago, Illinois filed patent for the first vacuum coffee maker that truly automated the vacuum brewing process, while eliminating the need for a stove top burner or liquid fuels.[1] An electrically heated stove was incorporated into the design of the vacuum brewer. Water was heated in a recessed well, which reduced wait times and forced the hottest water into the reaction chamber. Once the process was complete, a thermostat using bi-metallic expansion principles shut off heat to the unit at the appropriate time. Pierce’s invention was the first truly “automatic” vacuum coffee brewer, and was later incorporated in the Farberware Coffee Robot.

Pierce’s design was later improved by U.S. appliance engineers Ivar Jepson, Ludvik Koci, and Eric Bylund of Sunbeam in the late 1930s. They altered the heating chamber and eliminated the recessed well which was hard to clean. They also made several improvements to the filtering mechanism. Their improved design of plated metals, styled by industrial designer Alfonso Iannelli, became the famous Sunbeam Coffeemaster line of automated vacuum coffee makers (Models C-20, C-30, C40, and C-50). The Coffeemaster vacuum brewer was sold in large numbers in the United States during the years immediately following World War I.

Percolators[edit]

Main article: Coffee percolator

Electric percolator

Percolators began to be developed from the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States, James Nason of Massachusetts patented an early percolator design in 1865. An Illinois farmer named Hanson Goodrich is generally credited with patenting the modern percolator. Goodrich’s patent was granted on August 16, 1889, and his patent description varies little from the stovetop percolators sold today. With the percolator design, water is heated in a boiling pot with a removable lid, until the heated water is forced through a metal tube into a brew basket containing coffee. The extracted liquid drains from the brew basket, where it drips back into the pot. This process is continually repeated during the brewing cycle until the liquid passing repeatedly through the grounds is sufficiently steeped. A clear sight chamber in the form of a transparent knob on the lid of the percolator enables the user to judge when the coffee has reached the proper color and strength.

Domestic electrification simplified the operation of percolators by providing for a self-contained, electrically powered heating element that removed the need to use a stovetop burner. A critical element in the success of the electric coffee maker was the creation of safe and secure fuses and heating elements. In an article in House Furnishing Review, May 1915, Lewis Stephenson of Landers, Frary and Clark described a modular safety plug being used in his company’s Universal appliances, and the advent of numerous patents and innovations in temperature control and circuit breakers provided for the success of many new percolator and vacuum models. While early percolators had utilized all-glass construction (prized for maintaining purity of flavor), most percolators made from the 1930s were constructed of metal, especially aluminum and nickel-plated copper.

The method for making coffee in a percolator had barely changed since its introduction in the early part of the 20th century. However, in 1970 General Foods Corporation introduced Max Pax, the first commercially available “ground coffee filter rings”. The Max Pax filters were named so as to compliment General Foods’ Maxwell House coffee brand. The Max Pax coffee filter rings were designed for use in percolators, and each ring contained a pre-measured amount of coffee grounds that were sealed in a self-contained paper filter. The sealed rings resembled the shape of a doughnut, and the small hole in the middle of the ring enabled the coffee filter ring to be placed in the metal percolator basket around the protruding convection (percolator) tube.

Prior to the introduction of pre-measured self-contained ground coffee filter rings; fresh coffee grounds were measured out in scoopfuls and placed into the metal percolator basket. This process enabled small amounts of coffee grounds to leak into the fresh coffee. Additionally, the process left wet grounds in the percolator basket, which were very tedious to clean. The benefit of the Max Pax coffee filter rings was two-fold: First, because the amount of coffee contained in the rings was pre-measured, it negated the need to measure each scoop and then place it in the metal percolator basket. Second, the filter paper was strong enough to hold all the coffee grounds within the sealed paper. After use, the coffee filter ring could be easily removed from the basket and discarded. This saved the consumer from the tedious task of cleaning out the remaining wet coffee grounds from the percolator basket.

With the introduction of the electric drip coffee maker for the home in the early 1970s, the popularity of percolators plummeted, and so did the market for the self-contained ground coffee filters. In 1976, General Foods discontinued the manufacture of Max Pax, and by the end of the decade, even generic ground coffee filter rings were no longer available on U.S. supermarket shelves.

Moka pot[edit]

Main article: Moka pot

The moka pot is a stove-top coffee maker which produces coffee by passing hot water pressurized by steam through ground coffee. It was first patented by inventor Luigi De Ponti for Alfonso Bialetti in 1933. Bialetti Industrie continues to produce the same model under the name “Moka Express”.

The moka pot is most commonly used in Europe and in Latin America. It has become an iconic design, displayed in modern industrial art and design museums such as the Wolfsonian- FIU, Museum of Modern Art, the Cooper–Hewitt, National Design Museum, the Design Museum, and the London Science Museum. Moka pots come in different sizes, from one to eighteen 50 ml cups. The original design and many current models are made from aluminium with bakelite handles.

Electric drip coffeemakers[edit]

Main article: Drip brew
Wigomat, the first electric drip coffeemaker
Underside of a modern drip coffeemaker, showing the tubing and electric components

An electric drip coffee maker can also be referred to as a dripolator. It normally works by admitting water from a cold water reservoir into a flexible hose in the base of the reservoir leading directly to a thin metal tube or heating chamber (usually, of aluminum), where a heating element surrounding the metal tube heats the water. The heated water moves through the machine using the thermosiphon principle. Thermally-induced pressure and the siphoning effect move the heated water through an insulated rubber or vinyl riser hose, into a spray head, and onto the ground coffee, which is contained in a brew basket mounted below the spray head. The coffee passes through a filter and drips down into the carafe. A one-way valve in the tubing prevents water from siphoning back into the reservoir. A thermostat attached to the heating element turns off the heating element as needed to prevent overheating the water in the metal tube (overheating would produce only steam in the supply hose), then turns back on when the water cools below a certain threshold. For a standard 10-12 cup drip coffeemaker, using a more powerful thermostatically-controlled heating element (in terms of wattage produced), can heat increased amounts of water more quickly using larger heating chambers, generally producing higher average water temperatures at the spray head over the entire brewing cycle. This process can be further improved by changing the aluminum construction of most heating chambers to a metal with superior heat transfer qualities, such as copper.

Throughout the latter part of the 20th century, a number of inventors patented various coffeemaker designs using an automated form of the drip brew method. Subsequent designs have featured changes in heating elements, spray head, and brew-basket design, as well as the addition of timers and clocks for automatic-start, water filtration, filter and carafe design, and even built-in coffee grinding mechanisms.

Pourover, water displacement drip coffeemakers[edit]

Bunn-O-Matic also came out with a different drip-brew machine. In this type of coffeemaker, the machine uses a holding tank or boiler pre-filled with water. When the machine is turned on, all of the water in the holding tank is brought to near boiling point (approximately 200–207 °F or 93–97 °C) using a thermostatically-controlled heating element. When water is poured into a top-mounted tray, it descends into a funnel and tube which delivers the cold water to the bottom of the boiler. The less-dense hot water in the boiler is displaced out of the tank and into a tube leading to the spray head, where it drips into a brew basket containing the ground coffee. The pourover, water displacement method of coffeemaking tends to produce brewed coffee at a much faster rate than standard drip designs. Its primary disadvantage is increased electricity consumption in order to preheat the water in the boiler. Additionally, the water displacement method is most efficient when used to brew coffee at the machine’s maximum or near-maximum capacity, as typically found in restaurant or office usage. In 1963, Bunn introduced the first automatic coffee brewer, which connected to a waterline for an automatic water feed.

French press[edit]

A French press coffeemaker

A French press requires coffee of a coarser grind than does a drip brew coffee filter, as finer grounds will seep through the press filter and into the coffee.[2] Coffee is brewed by placing the coffee and water together, stirring it and leaving to brew for a few minutes, then pressing the plunger to trap the coffee grounds at the bottom of the beaker.

Because the coffee grounds remain in direct contact with the brewing water and the grounds are filtered from the water via a mesh instead of a paper filter, coffee brewed with the French press captures more of the coffee’s flavour and essential oils, which would become trapped in a traditional drip brew machine’s paper filters.[3] As with drip-brewed coffee, French pressed coffee can be brewed to any strength by adjusting the amount of ground coffee which is brewed. If the used grounds remain in the drink after brewing, French pressed coffee left to stand can become “bitter”, though this is an effect that many users of French press consider beneficial. For a 12-litre (0.11 imp gal; 0.13 US gal) French press, the contents are considered spoiled, by some reports, after around 20 minutes.[4] Other approaches consider a brew period that may extend to hours as a method of superior production.

Single-serve coffeemaker[edit]

The single-serve or single-cup coffeemaker has gained popularity in recent years.[5] Single-serve brewing systems let a certain amount of water heated at a precise temperature go through a coffee portion pack (or coffee pod), brewing a standardized cup of coffee into a recipient placed under the beverage outlet. A coffee portion pack has an air-tight seal to ensure product freshness. It contains a determined quantity of ground coffee and usually encloses an internal filter paper for optimal brewing results. The single-serve coffeemaker technology often allows the choice of cup size and brew strength, and delivers a cup of brewed coffee rapidly, usually at the touch of a button. Today, a variety of beverages are available for brewing with single-cup machines such as tea, hot chocolate and milk-based specialty beverages. Single-cup coffee machines are designed for both home and commercial use.

Design considerations in coffeemakers[edit]

Moka pot coffee pot

At the beginning of the twentieth century, although some coffee makers tended to uniformity of design (particularly stovetop percolators), others displayed a wide variety of styling differences. In particular, the vacuum brewer, which required two fully separate chambers joined in an hourglass configuration, seemed to inspire industrial designers. Interest in new designs for the vacuum brewer revived during the American Arts & Crafts movement with the introduction of “Silex” brand coffee makers, based on models developed by Massachusetts housewives Ann Bridges and Mrs. Sutton. Their use of Pyrex solved the problem of fragility and breakability that had made this type of machine commercially unattractive. During the 1930s, simple, clean forms, increasingly of metal, attracted positive attention from industrial designers heavily influenced by the functionalist imperative of the Bauhaus and Streamline movements. It was at this time that Sunbeam’s sleek Coffeemaster vacuum brewer appeared, styled by the famous industrial designer Alfonso Iannelli. The popularity of glass and Pyrex globes temporarily revived during the Second World War, since aluminum, chrome, and other metals used in traditional coffee makers became restricted in availability.

The impact of science and technological advances as a motif in post-war design was eventually felt in the manufacture and marketing of coffee and coffee-makers. Consumer guides emphasized the ability of the device to meet standards of temperature and brewing time, and the ratio of soluble elements between brew and grounds. The industrial chemist Peter Schlumbohm expressed the scientific motif most purely in his “Chemex” coffeemaker, which from its initial marketing in the early 1940s used the authority of science as a sales tool, describing the product as “the Chemist’s way of making coffee”, and discussing at length the quality of its product in the language of the laboratory: “the funnel of the CHEMEX creates ideal hydrostatic conditions for the unique… Chemex extraction.” Schlumbohm’s unique brewer, a single Pyrex vessel shaped to hold a proprietary filter cone, resembled nothing more than a piece of laboratory equipment, and surprisingly became popular for a time in the otherwise heavily automated, technology-obsessed 1950s household.

In later years, coffeemakers began to adopt more standardized forms commensurate with a large increase in the scale of production required to meet postwar consumer demand. Plastics and composite materials began to replace metal, particularly with the advent of newer electric drip coffeemakers in the 1970s. During the 1990s, consumer demand for more attractive appliances to complement expensive modern kitchens resulted in a new wave of redesigned coffeemakers in a wider range of available colors and styles.

Unusual designs[edit]

Several models of propane gas powered coffee machines are also available.

from wikipedia

Coffee / Keurig

Keurig /ˈkjʊərɪɡ/ is a beverage brewing system for home and commercial use. It is manufactured by the American company Keurig Green Mountain, which is headquartered in Waterbury, Vermont. The main Keurig products are: K-Cup pods, which are single-serve coffee containers; other beverage pods; and the proprietary machines that brew the beverages in these pods.

Keurig beverage varieties include hot and cold coffees, teas, cocoas, dairy-based beverages, lemonades, cider, and fruit-based drinks. Through its own brands and its partnership licensed brands, Keurig has over 400 different varieties and over 60 brands of coffee and other beverages. In addition to K-Cup pods it includes Vue, Rivo, Bolt, K-Carafe, and K-Mug pods as well.

The original single-serve brewer and coffee-pod manufacturing company, Keurig, Inc., was founded in Massachusetts in 1992. It launched its first brewers and K-Cup pods in 1998, targeting the office market. As the single-cup brewing system gained popularity, brewers for home use were added in 2004. In 2006 the publicly traded Vermont-based specialty-coffee company Green Mountain Coffee Roasters acquired Keurig, sparking rapid growth for both companies. In 2012 Keurig’s main patent on its K-Cup pods expired, leading to new product launches, including brewer models that only accept pods from Keurig brands. Keurig has also entered the cold-beverage market with Brew Over Ice, and with Keurig Kold, which launched in September 2015; and it entered the soup market with a line of Campbell’s Soup K-Cups which also launched in September 2015.

From 2006 to 2014 Keurig, Inc. was a wholly owned subsidiary of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters. When Green Mountain Coffee Roasters changed its name to Keurig Green Mountain in March 2014, Keurig ceased to be a separate business unit and subsidiary, and instead became Keurig Green Mountain’s main brand.[1][2][3] In 2016 Keurig Green Mountain was acquired by an investor group led by private-equity firm JAB Holding Company for nearly $14 billion.[4][5][6]

History[edit]

Inception and development[edit]

Keurig founders John Sylvan and Peter Dragone had been college roommates at Colby College in Maine in the late 1970s.[7][8] In the early 1990s Sylvan, a tinkerer, had quit his tech job in Massachusetts, and wanted to solve the commonplace problem of office coffee – a full pot of brewed coffee which sits and grows bitter, dense, and stale – by creating a single-serving pod of coffee grounds and a machine that would brew it.[8] Living in Greater Boston, he went through extensive trial and error trying to create a pod and a brewing machine.[8] By 1992, to help create a business plan, he brought in Dragone, then working as director of finance for Chiquita, as a partner.[8] They founded the company in 1992,[9] calling it Keurig; Sylvan later said that the name came from his having “looked up the word excellence in Dutch”.[10]

By 1993 Sylvan and Dragone were still making the pods by hand, and brought in manufacturing consultant Dick Sweeney to serve as co-founder and to automate the manufacturing process.[8][11] The prototype brewing machines were also a work in progress and unreliable, and the company needed funds for development.[8] That year, they approached what was then Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, and the specialty coffee company first invested in Keurig at that time.[12][13] Keurig needed sizeable venture capital; and after pitching to numerous potential investors the three partners finally obtained $50,000 from Minneapolis-based investor Food Fund in 1994, and later the Cambridge-based fund MDT Advisers contributed $1,000,000.[8] In 1995 Larry Kernan, a principal at MDT Advisers, became Chairman of Keurig, a position he retained through 2002.[8][14] Sylvan did not work well with the new investors, and in 1997 he was forced out, selling his stake in the company for $50,000.[8] Dragone left a few months later but decided to retain his stake.[8] Sweeney stayed on as the company’s vice president of engineering.[11]

Launch[edit]

In 1997, Green Mountain Coffee Roasters became the first roaster to offer its coffee in the Keurig “K-Cup” pod for the newly market-ready Keurig Single-Cup Brewing System,[12] and in 1998 Keurig delivered its first brewing system, the B2000, designed for offices.[8][15][16] Distribution began in New York and New England.[17] The target market at that time was still office use, and Keurig hoped to capture some of Starbucks‘ market.[8] To satisfy brand loyalty and individual tastes, Keurig found and enlisted a variety of regionally known coffee brands that catered to various flavor preferences.[18] The first of these was Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, and additional licensees for the K-Cup line included Tully’s Coffee, Timothy’s World Coffee, Diedrich Coffee, and Van Houtte, although Green Mountain was the dominant brand.[18] Keurig also partnered with a variety of established national U.S. coffee brands for K-Cup varieties, and in 2000 the company also branched out the beverage offerings in its K-Cup pods to include hot chocolate and a variety of teas.[16] The brewing machines were large, and hooked up to an office’s water supply; Keurig sold them to local coffee distributors, who installed them in offices for little or no money, relying on the K-Cups for profits.[8][19]

In 2002, Keurig sold 10,000 commercial brewers.[8] Consumer demand for a home-use brewer version increased,[20] but manufacturing a model small enough to fit on a kitchen counter, and making them inexpensively enough to be affordable to consumers, took time. Office models were profitable because the profits came from the high-margin K-Cups, and one office might go through up to hundreds of those a day.[8][19]

By 2004, Keurig had a prototype ready for home use, but so did large corporate competitors like Salton, Sara Lee, and Procter & Gamble, which introduced their own single-serve brewers and pods. Keurig capitalized on the increased awareness of the concept, and sent representatives into stores to do live demonstrations of its B100 home brewer and give out free samples.[8][16] Keurig and K-Cups quickly became the dominant brand of home brewers and single-serve pods.[8]

Acquisition by Green Mountain Coffee Roasters[edit]

In 2006, the publicly traded Vermont-based specialty-coffee company Green Mountain Coffee Roasters (GMCR) – which had successively invested in and acquired increasing percentage ownership of Keurig in 1993, 1996, and 2003, by which time it had a 43% ownership – completed its full acquisition of Keurig.[21] Green Mountain also acquired the four additional Keurig licensees, Tully’s Coffee, Timothy’s World Coffee, Diedrich Coffee, and Van Houtte, in 2009 and 2010.[22][23][24][25]

The joining of Keurig and Green Mountain combined a highly technological brewing-machine manufacturer and a nationwide high-end coffee provider into one company, and created an effective “razor/razorblade” model that allowed for explosive growth and high profits.[18] By 2008, K-Cup pods became available for sale in supermarkets across the U.S.[18] Coffee pod machine sales overall multiplied more than six-fold over the six years from 2008 to 2014.[26] In 2010 Keurig and K-Cup sales topped $1.2 billion.[16] The high-margin profits from K-Cup pods are the bulk of the company’s income; for fiscal year 2014, Keurig generated $822.3 million in sales from brewers and accessories, while the pods had $3.6 billion in sales.[27]

In February 2011 Green Mountain announced an agreement with Dunkin’ Donuts to make Dunkin’ Donuts coffee available in single-serve K-Cup pods for use with Keurig Single-Cup Brewers. In addition, participating Dunkin’ Donuts restaurants on occasion offer Keurig Single-Cup Brewers for sale.[28] In March 2011, Green Mountain Coffee and Starbucks announced a similar deal whereby Starbucks would sell its coffee and tea in Keurig single-serve pods, and would in return sell Keurig machines in their stores as part of the deal.[29]

Additional products and developments[edit]

The company introduced the Keurig Vue brewer, paired with new Vue pods, in February 2012,[30] seven months before the key patent on the K-Cup expired in September 2012.[31][32][33] The Vue system was announced as having customizable features so consumers had control over the strength, size, and temperature of their beverages, and the Vue pod is made of recyclable #5 plastic.[30] The Vue brewer was discontinued in 2014,[34] although Keurig still sells the Vue pods.[35]

In November 2012, GMCR released its espresso, cappuccino, and latte brewer, the Rivo, co-developed with the Italian coffee company Lavazza.[36] In the fall of 2013, the company released a full-pot brewer, the Keurig Bolt, for use mainly in offices.[37]

In November 2013 Keurig opened a retail store inside the Burlington Mall in Burlington, Massachusetts. The store features the full line of Keurig machines and accessories, and nearly 200 varieties of K-Cups for creating individualized 3-, 6-, or 12-pod boxes.[38][39]

In February 2014, The Coca-Cola Company purchased a 10% stake in Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, valued at $1.25 billion, with an option to increase their stake to 16%, which was exercised in May 2014.[40] The partnership was part of Coca-Cola’s support of a cold beverage system developed by Keurig to allow customers to make Coca-Cola and other brand beverages at home.[40] In January 2015, the company made a similar deal with Dr Pepper Snapple Group, but without a stockholder stake.[41] The cold beverage system, Keurig Kold, launched in September 2015.[42]

Keurig Green Mountain[edit]

In early March 2014, shareholders of Keurig’s parent company, Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, voted to change its name to Keurig Green Mountain to reflect its business of selling Keurig coffee makers.[43] Keurig Green Mountain’s stock-market symbol remained “GMCR”.[3]

In the fall of 2014, Keurig Green Mountain introduced the Keurig 2.0 brewer, with technology to prevent old or unlicensed pods being used in the brewer.[44] The digital lock-out sparked hacking attempts and anti-trust lawsuits.[45][46][47][48] The Keurig 2.0 K-Cup pods come in 400 varieties from 60 brands,[49][50] and as of 2015 the 2.0 K-Cup, K-Carafe, and K-Mug pods encompass 500 varieties from 75 brands.[51] The 2.0 brewer also has the capacity to brew full carafes in three settings from 2 to 5 cups, via the use of the new K-Carafe pod.[52][53][54][55]

In March 2015, Keurig launched the K-Mug pod, a recyclable pod which brews large travel mug–sized portions.[56] The K-Mug pods, for use in the Keurig 2.0 brewing system, brew 12-, 14-, and 16-ounce cups, and the plastic is recyclable #5 polypropylene plastic.[57][58]

In mid 2015 Keurig debuted the K200, a smaller Keurig 2.0 model that can brew single cups or four-cup carafes and comes in a variety of colors.[59][60] General Electric announced that its new Café French Door refrigerator, due out in late 2015, will have a Keurig coffee machine built into the door.[61][62]

In September 2015, Keurig launched a line of Campbell’s Soup available in K-Cups.[63][64] The Campbell’s Fresh-Brewed Soup Kits come with a packet of noodles and a K-Cup pod of soup.[63] The product is available in two varieties: Homestyle Chicken Broth & Noodle, and Southwest Style Chicken Broth & Noodle.[64]

Also in September 2015, Keurig launched Keurig Kold, a brewer which creates a variety of cold beverages including soft drinks, functional beverages, and sparkling waters.[42] The machine brews beverages from The Coca-Cola Company (e.g. Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Sprite, Fanta) and the Dr Pepper Snapple Group (e.g. Dr Pepper, Canada Dry) and Keurig’s own line of flavored sparkling and non-sparkling waters and teas, sports drinks, and soda-fountain drinks.[42]

In December 2015 it was announced that Keurig Green Mountain would be sold to an investor group led by private-equity firm JAB Holding Company for nearly $14 billion.[5] The acquisition was completed in March 2016.[4][6]

Products[edit]

Keurig K-Cup brewing systems[edit]

The inside of a used K-Cup pod, with the top foil and the used coffee grounds removed, revealing the filter

The company’s flagship products, Keurig K-Cup brewing systems, are designed to brew a single cup of coffee, tea, hot chocolate, or other hot beverage. The grounds are in a single-serve coffee container, called a “K-Cup” pod, consisting of a plastic cup, aluminum lid, and filter. Each K-Cup pod is filled with coffee grounds, tea leaves, cocoa powder, fruit powder, or other contents, and is nitrogen flushed, sealed for freshness, and impermeable to oxygen, light, and moisture.[10][65]

The machines brew the K-Cup beverage by piercing the foil seal with a spray nozzle, while piercing the bottom of the plastic pod with a discharge nozzle. Grounds contained inside the K-Cup pod are in a paper filter. Hot water is forced under pressure through the K-Cup pod, passing through the grounds and through the filter. A brewing temperature of 192 °F (89 °C) is the default setting, with some models permitting users to adjust the temperature downward by five degrees.[66]

The key original patent on the K-Cup expired in 2012.[67] Keurig has later patents, including on the filtration cartridge used in K-Cups,[68] and has also launched a number of new pods since the beginning of 2012.

Brewing system models[edit]

A Keurig coffee maker

Keurig sells many brewing system models, for household and commercial use. Licensed models from Breville, Cuisinart, and Mr. Coffee, were introduced in 2010.[2]

As of 2015, Keurig’s brewing systems for home use include:[69]

  • Keurig 2.0 – single-cup and carafe brewer with advanced programmable features for various brew sizes and strengths[51]
  • Keurig K-Cup Brewers – single-cup brewers[70]
  • Keurig Rivo – hot or cold espresso, cappuccino, and latte brewer[71]

Keurig also offers commercial brewing models specifically for offices,[72] food service,[73] convenience stores,[74] health care,[75] hotels and hospitality,[76] and college and university campuses.[77] As of 2015, these include:[78]

  • K10 – dorm-room brewer
  • K130 – in-room brewer for hotels
  • K145 OfficePRO – small-business brewer
  • K155 OfficePRO Premier Brewing System – small-business brewing system with more features
  • K140 – small office brewer
  • K150 – larger office brewer
  • K3000SE – high-capacity brewer
  • Bolt Z6000 – full-pot office brewer that brews a 64-ounce pot quickly

Beverage varieties and brands[edit]

Five K-Cups

Through its owned brands and through its partnerships and licensing, as of 2015 Keurig’s K-Cups and other pods offer more than 400 beverage varieties from 60 brands, including the top ten best-selling coffee brands in the U.S.[49][50] The beverages include coffees, teas, hot chocolates and cocoas, dairy-based beverages, lemonades, cider, and fruit-based drinks.[79] Keurig also offers Brew Over Ice pods for cold versions of teas, fruit drinks, and coffees.[80][81][82]

Keurig-owned brands[edit]

As of 2015, brands owned by Keurig/Keurig Green Mountain, and used in its K-Cup and other pods, include:[83]

Keurig licensed or partnered brands[edit]

As of October 2015, Keurig has licensing or partnership agreements with the following companies or brands, among others, for beverages and soups for its K-Cups and other pods:[2][42][64][84]

Awards[edit]

Keurig has been named Single Serve Coffee Maker Brand of the Year for four consecutive years from 2012–2015 by the Harris Poll EquiTrend Study.[85]

Some of Keurig’s additional awards since 2012 have included:

Corporate affairs[edit]

Environmental impact[edit]

In the 2010s, beginning primarily with a 2010 article in the New York Times,[94] Keurig has been publicly criticized by environmental advocates and journalists for the billions of non-recyclable and non-biodegradable K-Cups consumers purchase and dispose of every year, which end up in landfills.[95][96][97][98][99] Some competing single-cup brands have single-serve pods that are recyclable, reuseable, or biodegradable.[94][95][100][101]

The cup portion of the K-Cup is made of #7 plastic, and although according to the company it is BPA-free, safe, and meets or exceeds applicable FDA standards,[95] it cannot be recycled in most places.[95][97] Even in the few locations in Canada where #7 plastic is recycled, the small size of the pods means they can fall through sorting grates.[8]

Keurig Green Mountain – formerly Green Mountain Coffee Roasters (GMCR) – founded in 1981 and known for its historic environmentally conscious image, has been Keurig’s parent company since 2006. In late 2005 Green Mountain and Keurig launched the My K-Cup reusable and refillable pod, which could be filled with any brand of coffee.[102][103][104] The product was discontinued in August 2014 with the launch of the Keurig 2.0 brewing system, and the 2.0 did not accept the My K-Cup pods. Consumer backlash prompted the company to announce in May 2015 that it was bringing back the My K-Cup and making it compatible with the 2.0 brewers.[104]

In 2011 GMCR launched the Grounds to Grow On program, in which office customers purchase recovery bins for used K-Cups, which are shipped to Keurig’s disposal partner, which composts the coffee grounds and sends the pods to be incinerated in a waste-to-energy power plant.[96][105][106] Critics point out that incineration produces airborne pollutants.[96][107]

Regarding potential recyclability, GMCR’s vice president of sustainability stated in 2013 that “The system has a lot of pretty demanding technical requirements in terms of being able to withstand certain amount of temperature and to have a certain kind of rigidity, and provide the right kinds of moisture barriers and oxygen barriers and the like. So it isn’t the simplest challenge.”[108] In 2015, Keurig Green Mountain’s chief sustainability officer stated that every new K-Cup spin-off product introduced since 2006 – including the Vue, Bolt, K-Carafe, and K-Mug pods – is recyclable if disassembled into paper, plastic, and metal components.[109] In its 2014 Sustainability Report, released in February 2015, Keurig Green Mountain re-affirmed that a priority for the company is ensuring that 100% of K-Cup pods are recyclable by 2020.[110][111][112][113][114]

In August 2014, the Canadian chain OfficeMax Grand & Toy partnered with the New Jersey company TerraCycle to launch a K-Cup recycling program for businesses in Canada, using a recycling box purchased by the businesses and shipped to TerraCycle for recycling when full.[115] In February 2015 TerraCycle launched a similar program for residential use in the U.S.: consumers purchase a Zero Waste Box which can hold 600 capsules, and when full the box, which has a pre-paid UPS label, is shipped to TerraCycle for recycling.[116][117][118][119]

Legal issues[edit]

In early 2014, following the announcement of its Keurig 2.0 machines engineered to lock out unlicensed pods, seven competitors and a number of purchasers filed lawsuits in Canada and in various United States federal courts.[46][120] The complaints contain numerous allegations of anti-competitive actions designed to drive competitors out of Keurig’s market.[46][120][121]

To handle the U.S. anti-competitive lawsuits, in June 2014 the United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation consolidated the litigation into one docket in the Southern District of New York, where Judge Vernon S. Broderick is hearing the consolidated case.[121][122][123] The case, which as of early 2016 is in process, has 46 plaintiffs, consisting of indirect purchasers, direct purchasers, and two competitors.[121][124] Common allegations of the multidistrict litigation include claims that Keurig improperly acquired competitors, entered into exclusionary agreements with suppliers and distributors to prevent competitors from entering the market, engaged in unwarranted patent-infringement litigation, and unfairly introduced a product redesign that locks out non–Keurig branded cups.[121][122]

The introduction of the Keurig 2.0 brewer also sparked a number of hacks and workarounds by competitors and consumers in 2014.[125] Rogers Family Coffee, one of the plaintiffs in the anti-trust lawsuits, created a “Freedom Clip” allowing unauthorized pods to work in the brewer.[126][127] Another plaintiff, TreeHouse Foods, claimed to be able to produce its own pods that would work in the 2.0 system.[125][128] A Canadian company, Mother Parkers Tea & Coffee, announced a capsule which would be compatible with the Keurig 2.0.[125][129]

In December 2014, the company recalled about 7 million of its Keurig Mini Plus Brewing Systems manufactured between December 2009 and July 2014 and sold in the U.S. and Canada. The recall was due to burn injuries reported from water overheating and spewing out of some of the machines, particularly if used to brew more than two cups in quick succession.[27][130][131][132]

Corporate governance[edit]

John Sylvan and Peter Dragone founded Keurig, Inc. in 1992,[9] and they brought in Dick Sweeney as co-founder in 1993.[8][11] In 1995 Larry Kernan, a principal at MDT Advisers – an investment fund which had contributed $1,000,000 to the company – became Chairman of Keurig; he retained the position through 2002.[8][14] Sylvan was forced out of the company in 1997, and Dragone left a few months later.[8] Sweeney stayed on as the company’s vice president of engineering;[11] he later became Vice President of Contract Manufacturing and Quality Assurance.[9][133]

Nick Lazaris was President and CEO of Keurig, Inc. from 1997 to 2006.[134][135] Keurig, Inc. was fully acquired by Green Mountain Coffee Roasters in 2006;[21] at the time, GMCR’s founder Bob Stiller was its President and CEO.[136][137] Stiller stepped down in 2007, but remained Chairman until May 2012.[136][137] Lawrence J. Blanford became Green Mountain Coffee Roasters’ President and CEO in 2007.[136][138] Brian Kelley, previously chief product supply officer of Coca-Cola Refreshments, became the President and CEO of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters (now Keurig Green Mountain) in December 2012.[139][140][141] Robert Gamgort, who had been CEO of Pinnacle Foods, replaced Brian Kelley as Keurig Green Mountain’s CEO in May 2016 after KGM was acquired by an investor group led by private-equity firm JAB Holding Company.[142][143][144]

from wikipedia

Coffee

The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the 10th century, with a number of reports and legends surrounding its first use. The native (undomesticated) origin of coffee is thought to have been Ethiopia. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.[1] By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, South India, Persia, Turkey, Horn of Africa, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to the Balkans, Italy and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia and then to America.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The word “coffee” entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie,[3] borrowed from the Turkish kahve, in turn borrowed from the Arabic qahwah ( قهوة).[4]

The word qahwah originally referred to a type of wine, whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahā (قها, “to lack hunger”) in reference to the drink’s reputation as an appetite suppressant.[4][5] The word qahwah is sometimes alternatively traced to the Arabic quwwa (“power, energy”), or to Kaffa, a medieval kingdom in Ethiopia whence the plant was exported to Arabia.[4] These etymologies for qahwah have all been disputed, however. The name qahwah is not used for the berry or plant (the products of the region), which are known in Arabic as bunn and in Oromo as būn. Semitic had a root qhh “dark color”, which became a natural designation for the beverage. According to this analysis, the feminine form qahwah (also meaning “dark in color, dull(ing), dry, sour”) was likely chosen to parallel the feminine khamr (خمر, “wine”), and originally meant “the dark one”.[6]

First use[edit]

The Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Oromo ethnic group were the first to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant.[1] Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea arabica varieties, which were found to be of low diversity but with retention of some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, and closely related diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica;[7] however, no direct evidence has ever been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century.[1] The original domesticated coffee plant is said to have been from Harar, and the native population is thought to be derived from Ethiopia with distinct nearby populations in Sudan and Kenya.[8][9]

Coffee was primarily consumed in the Islamic world where it originated and was directly related to religious practices.[10]

There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Yemenite Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili.[11] When traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality, and, upon trying the berries that the birds had been eating, experienced the same vitality.

Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheik Abou’l Hasan Schadheli’s disciple, Omar. According to the ancient chronicle (preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar chewed berries from nearby shrubbery, but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the beans to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the bean, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this “miracle drug” reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint.[12]

Another probably fanciful[1] account involves a 9th-century Ethiopian goat-herder, Kaldi, who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself. His exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a monk in a nearby monastery. But the monk disapproved of their use and threw them into the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed, causing other monks to come and investigate. The roasted beans were quickly raked from the embers, ground up, and dissolved in hot water, yielding the world’s first cup of coffee. Since this story is not known to have appeared in writing before 1671, 800 years after it was supposed to have taken place, it is highly likely to be apocryphal.[1]

History[edit]

Syrian Bedouin from a beehive village in Aleppo, Syria, sipping the traditional murra (bitter) coffee, 1930

Palestinian women grinding coffee, 1905

The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in Yemen‘s Sufi monasteries.[1]

Coffee beans were first exported from Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the bean.[13] The word qahwa originally meant wine, and Sufis in Yemen used the beverage as an aid to concentration and as a kind of spiritual intoxication when they chanted the name of God.[14] Sufis used it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A translation of Al-Jaziri’s manuscript[15]traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to Mecca and Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Constantinople. By 1414, the beverage was known in Mecca, and in the early 1500s was spreading to the Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt and North Africa from the Yemeni port of Mocha.[8][14] Associated with Sufism, a myriad of coffee houses grew up in Cairo (Egypt) around the religious University of the Azhar. These coffee houses also opened in Syria, especially in the cosmopolitan city of Aleppo,[14] and then in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, in 1554.[14] In 1511, it was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox imams at a theological court in Mecca.[16] However, these bans were to be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Suleiman I, with Grand Mufti Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi issuing a fatwa allowing the consumption of coffee.[17] In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses containing coffee beans were sacked.[18] During the 16th century, it had already reached the rest of the Middle East, the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire. From the Middle East, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.[2]

Similarly, coffee was banned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church some time before the 18th century.[19] However, in the second half of the 19th century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking, and its consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to Richard Pankhurst, “this was largely due to Emperor Menilek, who himself drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the belief of the clergy that it was a Muslim drink.”[20]

The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant Philippe Sylvestre Dufour[21] is a reference to bunchum in the works of the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known as Rhazes in the West,[22] but more definite information on the preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee berries dates from several centuries later. One of the most important of the early writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, who in 1587 compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa عمدة الصفوة في حل القهوة.[16][23] He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani (d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee (circa 1454).

He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour.[1]

Europe[edit]

Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692

Coffee was first introduced to Europe in the island of Malta in the 16th century, according to the TV documentary Madwarna. It was introduced there through slavery. Turkish Muslim slaves had been imprisoned by the Knights of St John in 1565—the year of the Great Siege of Malta, and they used to make their traditional beverage. Domenico Magri mentioned in his work Virtu del Kafé, “Turks, most skilful makers of this concoction.” Also the German traveller Gustav Sommerfeldt in 1663 wrote “the ability and industriousness with which the Turkish prisoners earn some money, especially by preparing coffee, a powder resembling snuff tobacco, with water and sugar.” Coffee was a popular beverage in Maltese high society—many coffee shops opened.[24]

Coffee was also noted in Aleppo by the German physician botanist Leonhard Rauwolf, the first European to mention it, as chaube, in 1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European travellers.[25]

The vibrant trade between the Republic of Venice and the Muslims in North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice, charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was introduced to the mainland of Europe. In 1591 Venetian botanist-physician Prospero Alpini became the first to publish a description of the coffee plant in Europe.[citation needed] The first European coffee house apart from those in the Ottoman Empire and in Malta was opened in Venice in 1645.[2]

Austria[edit]

The first coffeehouse in Austria opened in Vienna in 1683 after the Battle of Vienna, by using supplies from the spoils obtained after defeating the Turks. The officer who received the coffee beans, Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, a Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin, opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding sugar and milk to the coffee. Melange is the typical Viennese coffee, which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water.

England[edit]

1652 advertisement for the UK’s first coffeehouse, St. Michael’s Alley

According to Leonhard Rauwolf‘s 1583 account, coffee became available in England no later than the 16th century, largely through the efforts of the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael’s Alley in Cornhill, London. The proprietor was Pasqua Rosée, the servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment. Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England, but there were many disruptions in the progressive movement of coffeehouses between the 1660s and 1670s.[26] During the enlightenment, these early English coffee houses became gathering places used for deep religious and political discussions among the populace. This practice became so common, and potentially subversive, that Charles II made an attempt to crush coffee houses in 1675.[27][28][29][30]

The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, for example, women frequented them in Germany, but it appears to have been commonplace elsewhere in Europe, including in England.[31]

Many in this period believed coffee to have medicinal properties. A 1661 tract entitled “A character of coffee and coffee-houses”, written by one “M.P.”, lists some of these perceived benefits:

‘Tis extolled for drying up the Crudities of the Stomack, and for expelling Fumes out of the Head. Excellent Berry! which can cleanse the English-man’s Stomak of Flegm, and expel Giddinesse out of his Head.

This new commodity proved controversial among some subjects, however. For instance, the anonymous 1674 “Women’s Petition Against Coffee” declared:

the Excessive Use of that Newfangled, Abominable, Heathenish Liquor called COFFEE …has…Eunucht our Husbands, and Crippled our more kind Gallants, that they are become as Impotent, as Age.[32]

France[edit]

Antoine Galland (1646–1715) in his aforementioned translation described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate: “We are indebted to these great [Arab] physicians for introducing coffee to the modern world through their writings, as well as sugar, tea, and chocolate.” Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix, the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot, who had travelled through the East. On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix.

In 1669, Soleiman Agha, Ambassador from Sultan Mehmed IV, arrived in Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of coffee beans. Not only did they provide their French and European guests with coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the royal court. Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians.

Germany[edit]

In Germany, coffeehouses were first established in North Sea ports, including Bremen (1673) and Hamburg (1677). Initially, this new beverage was written in the English form coffee, but during the 1700s the Germans gradually adopted the French word café, then slowly changed to the word Kaffee, where it stands now. In the 18th century the popularity of coffee gradually spread around the German lands, and was taken up by the ruling classes. Coffee was served at the court of the Great Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, as early as 1675, but the first public coffee house in his capital, Berlin, opened only in 1721.

Café Zimmermann, Leipzig (engraving by Johann Georg Schreiber, 1732)

Composer Johann Sebastian Bach, who was cantor of St. Thomas Church, Leipzig, in 1723–50, conducted a musical ensemble at Café Zimmermann in that Saxon city. Sometime in 1732–35 he composed the secular “Coffee Cantata” Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht (BWV 211), in which a young woman, Lieschen, pleads with her disapproving father to accept her devotion to drinking coffee, then a newfangled fashion. The libretto includes such lines as:

Ei! wie schmeckt der Coffee süße,
Lieblicher als tausend Küsse,
Milder als Muskatenwein.
Coffee, Coffee muss ich haben,
Und wenn jemand mich will laben,
Ach, so schenkt mir Coffee ein!

(Oh! How sweet coffee does taste,
Better than a thousand kisses,
Milder than muscat wine.
Coffee, coffee, I’ve got to have it,
And if someone wants to perk me up, *
Oh, just give me a cup of coffee!)

Netherlands[edit]

Further information: Dutch East India Company

The race among Europeans to obtain live coffee trees or beans was eventually won by the Dutch in 1616. Pieter van den Broecke, a Dutch merchant, obtained some of the closely guarded coffee bushes from Mocha, Yemen, in 1616. He took them back to Amsterdam and found a home for them in the Botanical gardens, where they began to thrive. This apparently minor event received little publicity, but was to have a major impact on the history of coffee.

The beans that van der Broecke acquired from Mocha forty years earlier adjusted well to conditions in the greenhouses at the Amsterdam Botanical Garden and produced numerous healthy Coffea arabica bushes. In 1658 the Dutch first used them to begin coffee cultivation in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and later in southern India. They abandoned these cultivations to focus on their Javanese plantations in order to avoid lowering the price by oversupply.[citation needed]

Within a few years, the Dutch colonies (Java in Asia, Suriname in the Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe.

Poland[edit]

Coffee reached the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 17th century, primarily through merchants trading with the Ottomans.[33] The first coffee shops opened a century later.[34] Usage of coffee has grown since, though it was a luxury commodity during the communist era of the Polish People’s Republic. Consumption of coffee has grown since the transformation of Poland into a democratic, capitalistic country in 1989, through it still remains lower per capita than in most West European countries.[35]

Americas[edit]

Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to Martinique in the Caribbean circa 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later there were 18,680 coffee trees in Martinique enabling the spread of coffee cultivation to Saint-Domingue (Haiti), Mexico and other islands of the Caribbean. The French territory of Saint-Domingue, saw coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world’s coffee. Coffee had a major influence on the geography of Latin America.[36] The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African slave laborers. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon-to-follow Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered there.[37]

Coffee also found its way to the Isle of Bourbon, now known as Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. The plant produced smaller beans and was deemed a different variety of arabica known as var. Bourbon. The Santos coffee of Brazil and the Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the progeny of that Bourbon tree. Circa 1727, the King of Portugal sent Francisco de Melo Palheta to French Guiana to obtain coffee seeds to become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty obtaining these seeds, but he captivated the French Governor’s wife and she sent him enough seeds and shoots to commence the coffee industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from Brazil was introduced into Kenya and Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey.[38]

Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822.[39] After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.[40]

After the Boston Tea Party of 1773, large numbers of Americans switched to drinking coffee during the American Revolution because drinking tea had become unpatriotic.[41]

Cultivation was taken up by many countries in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous Indian people. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants.[42] The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.[43]

Brazil became the largest producer of coffee in the world by 1852 and it held that status ever since. It dominated world production, exporting more coffee than the rest of the world combined, from 1850 to 1950. The period since 1950 saw the widening of the playing field due to the emergence of several other major producers, most notably Colombia, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, and, most recently, Vietnam, which overtook Colombia and became the second-largest producer in 1999 and reached 15% market share by 2011.[44]

Asia[edit]

India[edit]

Monsooned Malabar arabica, compared with green Yirgachefe beans from Ethiopia

The first record of coffee growing in India is following the introduction of coffee beans from Yemen by Baba Budan to the hills of Chikmagalur in 1670.[45] Since then coffee plantations have become established in the region, extending south to Kodagu.

Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with the state of Karnataka accounting 53% followed by Kerala 28% and Tamil Nadu 11% of production of 8,200 tonnes. Indian coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world.[46] There are approximately 250,000 coffee growers in India; 98% of them are small growers.[47] As of 2009, the production of coffee in India was only 4.5% of the total production in the world. Almost 80% of the country’s coffee production is exported.[48] Of that which is exported, 70% is bound for Germany, Russian federation, Spain, Belgium, Slovenia, United States, Japan, Greece, Netherlands and France, and Italy accounts for 29% of the exports. Most of the export is shipped through the Suez Canal.[46]

Coffee is grown in three regions of India with Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu forming the traditional coffee growing region of South India, followed by the new areas developed in the non-traditional areas of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in the eastern coast of the country and with a third region comprising the states of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh of Northeastern India, popularly known as “Seven Sister States of India”.[49]

Indian coffee, grown mostly in southern India under monsoon rainfall conditions, is also termed as “Indian monsooned coffee”. Its flavour is defined as: “The best Indian coffee reaches the flavour characteristics of Pacific coffees, but at its worst it is simply bland and uninspiring”.[50] The two well known species of coffee grown are the Arabica and Robusta. The first variety that was introduced in the Baba Budan Giri hill ranges of Karnataka in the 17th century[51] was marketed over the years under the brand names of Kent and S.795.

Chikmagalur Coffee is the cornerstone of Chikmagalur’s economy. Chikmagalur is the birthplace of coffee in India, where the seed was first sown about 350 years ago. Coffee Board is the department located in Chikmagalur town that oversees the production and marketing of coffee cultivated in the district. Coffee is cultivated in Chikmagalur district in an area of around 85,465 hectares with Arabica being the dominant variety grown in upper hills and Robusta being the major variety in the low level hills. There are around 15000 coffee growers in this district with 96% of them being small growers with holdings of less than or equal to 4 hectares. The average production is 55,000 MT: 35,000 MT of Arabica and 20,000 MT of Robusta. The average productivity per hectare is 810 kg for Arabica and 1110 kg of Robusta, which are higher than the national average. Arabica is a species of coffee that is also known as the “coffee shrub of Arabia”, “mountain coffee” or “arabica coffee”. Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, being grown in southwest Arabia for well over 1,000 years. It is considered to produce better coffee than the other major commercially grown coffee species, Coffea canephora (robusta). Arabica contains less caffeine than any other commercially cultivated species of coffee. Robusta is a species of coffee which has its origins in western Africa. It is grown mostly in Africa and Brazil, where it is often called Conillon. It is also grown in Southeast Asia where French colonists introduced it in the late 19th century. In recent years Vietnam, which only produces robusta, has surpassed Brazil, India, and Indonesia to become the world’s single largest exporter. Approximately one third of the coffee produced in the world is robusta.

Introduction of coffee in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh[52]

Coffee was first introduced in Andhra Pradesh in 1898 by Mr. Brodi, a Brtisher in Pamuleru valley in East Godavari district. Subsequently, it spread over to Pullangi (East Godavari district) and Gudem (Visakhapatnam district) agency tracks. In 1920s even though it spread over to Ananthagiri in Araku valley and Chintapalli areas, coffee cultivation remained dormant for a long time. In 1960s, the Andhra Pradesh Forest Department developed coffee plantations in 10100 acres in Reserve forest areas. These plantations were handed over to the A.P. Forest Development Corporation in the year 1985. In the year 1956 after the formation of Girijan Cooperative Corporation (GCC), the Coffee Board identified GCC for promoting coffee plantations. Since then GCC started making efforts to develop coffee plantation through local tribal famers. A separate coffee wing was carved out in GCC and promoting coffee in around 4000 hectares taken up. Thus, the coffee grown in Araku valley by the tribal farmers under organic practices attained recognition as “Araku coffee”. After 1985, GCC promoted another organization by name “Girijan Coop. Plantation Development Corporation” (GCPDC) exclusively to develop coffee plantations in tribal areas. All the plantations developed by GCC and GCPDC were handed over to the tribal farmers @ 2 acres to each family. In July, 1997 the employees working in GCPDC were deployed to ITDA and coffee expansion was taken up under Five year Plan and MGNREGS. Thus presently the coffee cultivation reached 1 lakh acres and maintained by the tribal farmers. In India, while coffee plantations were well developed over the last century in Western ghats, expansion of coffee in Eastern ghats is still to develop. Coffee is grown under organic practices under shades of Mango, Jackfruit, Banana and silver oak trees. Around 1 lakh tribal families living in this region are getting financially stabilized through coffee cultivation. The more welcoming development is that the tribal famers have given up their traditional “Podu” cultivation and now switched over to coffee cultivation on a large scale. The coffee cultivated in this region at an altitude of 900 to 1100 m MSL is having unique qualities due to medium acidity in soil. During the year 2015-16 GCC collected 1400 M.Ts of coffee, marketed the same through E-Auction Process.

Japan[edit]

Coffee was introduced to Japan by the Dutch in the 17th century, but remained a curiosity until the lifting of trade restrictions in 1858. The first European-style coffeehouse opened in Tokyo in 1888, and closed four years later.[53] By the early 1930s there were over 30,000 coffeehouses across the country; availability in the wartime and immediate postwar period dropped to nearly zero, then rapidly increased as import barriers were removed. The introduction of freeze-dried instant coffee, canned coffee, and franchises such as Starbucks and Doutor Coffee in the late 20th century continued this trend, to the point that Japan is now one of the leading per capita coffee consumers in the world.[54]

South Korea[edit]

Coffee’s first notable Korean enthusiasts were 19th century emperors Sunjong and Gojong, who preferred to consume it after western-style banquets.[55] By the 1980s instant coffee and canned coffee had become fairly popular, with a more minor tradition of independently owned coffeehouses in larger cities; toward the end of the century the growth of franchises such as Caffe Bene and Starbucks brought about a greater demand for European-style coffee.[56]

Indonesia[edit]

Coffee was first introduced by the Dutch during colonization in late 16th century. After several years coffee was already plan on Indonesia Archipelago. Many coffee specialty from Indonesian Archipelago. Today Indonesia is one of the largest coffee producers in the world, mainly for export. However coffee is enjoyed in various ways around the archipelago like traditional “Kopi Ende” which is with ginger to fancy new ways in Jakartas many coffee shops like Anomali.

Philippines[edit]

The Philippines is one of the few countries that produces the four varieties of commercially viable coffee: Arabica, Liberica (Barako), Excelsa and Robusta. Climatic and soil conditions in the Philippines – from the lowland to mountain regions – make the country suitable for all four varieties.

In the Philippines, coffee has a history as rich as its flavor. The first coffee tree was introduced in Lipa, Batangas in 1740 by a Spanish Franciscan monk. From there, coffee growing spread to other parts of Batangas like Ibaan, Lemery, San Jose, Taal, and Tanauan. Batangas owed much of its wealth to the coffee plantations in these areas and Lipa eventually became the coffee capital of the Philippines.

By the 1860s, Batangas was exporting coffee to America through San Francisco. When the Suez Canal was opened, a new market started in Europe as well. Seeing the success of the Batangeños, Cavite followed suit by growing the first coffee seedlings in 1876 in Amadeo. In spite of this, Lipa still reigned as the center for coffee production in the Philippines and Batangas barako was commanding five times the price of other Asian coffee beans. In 1880, the Philippines was the fourth largest exporter of coffee beans, and when the coffee rust hit Brazil, Africa, and Java, it became the only source of coffee beans worldwide.

The glory days of the Philippine coffee industry lasted until 1889 when coffee rust hit the Philippine shores. That, coupled with an insect infestation, destroyed virtually all the coffee trees in Batangas. Since Batangas was a major producer of coffee, this greatly affected national coffee production. In two years, coffee production was reduced to 1/6th its original amount. By then, Brazil had regained its position as the world’s leading producer of coffee. A few of the surviving coffee seedlings were transferred from Batangas to Cavite, where they flourished. This was not the end of the Philippines’ coffee growing days, but there was less area allotted to coffee because many farmers had shifted to other crops.

During the 1950s, the Philippine government, with the help of the Americans, brought in a more resistant variety of coffee. It was also then that instant coffee was being produced commercially, thus increasing the demand for beans. Because of favorable market conditions, many farmers went back to growing coffee in the 1960s. But the sudden proliferation of coffee farms resulted in a surplus of beans around the world, and for a while importation of coffee was banned in order to protect local coffee producers. When Brazil was hit by a frost in the 1970s, world market coffee prices soared. The Philippines became a member of the International Coffee Organization (ICO) in 1980.

Production[edit]

The first step in Europeans’ wresting the means of production was effected by Nicolaes Witsen, the enterprising burgomaster of Amsterdam and member of the governing board of the Dutch East India Company who urged Joan van Hoorn, the Dutch governor at Batavia that some coffee plants be obtained at the export port of Mocha in Yemen, the source of Europe’s supply, and established in the Dutch East Indies;[57] the project of raising many plants from the seeds of the first shipment met with such success that the Dutch East India Company was able to supply Europe’s demand with “Java coffee” by 1719.[58] Encouraged by their success, they soon had coffee plantations in Ceylon, Sumatra and other Sunda islands.[59] Coffee trees were soon grown under glass at the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden, whence slips were generously extended to other botanical gardens. Dutch representatives at the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Utrecht presented their French counterparts with a coffee plant, which was grown on at the Jardin du Roi, predecessor of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris.

The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain Gabriel des Clieux, who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist Antoine de Jussieu, who was loath to disfigure the king’s coffee tree.[60] Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult voyage, shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them from a Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the Batavian trade.[61] Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the West Indies, and established them in Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue in addition to Martinique, where a blight had struck the cacao plantations, which were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of three years, is attributed to France through its colonization of many parts of the continent starting with the Martinique and the colonies of the West Indies where the first French coffee plantations were founded.

The first coffee plantation in Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col. Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the germ plasm originally taken from Yemen to Batavia,[62] from French Guiana. By the 1800s, Brazil’s harvests would turn coffee from an elite indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most other countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied heavily on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the plantations until the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of coffee in 17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the habit of tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648).

For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil was the biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade. However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities to other nations, such as Colombia,[63] Guatemala, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Vietnam, now second only to Brazil as the major coffee producer in the world. Large-scale production in Vietnam began following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995.[64] Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta.[65]

Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century, and much of that not from the south of the country but from the environs of Harar in the northeast. The Kingdom of Kaffa, home of the plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in 1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela. 100,000 kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in 1927–8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port.[66] Coffee plantations were also developed in Arsi Province at the same time, and were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti Railway. While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the Railway, this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed exports of “Harari” coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in 1936.[67]

Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export, but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres (2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South Wales and Cooktown. Today there are several producers of Arabica coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented in 1981.[68]

from wikipedia