Category Archives: detergent

Organic Laundry Detergent

To live a truly green and healthy life, simply changing what you eat and how often you exercise can make a huge impact; but, why stop there? Your home is your haven, and it is meant to keep you and your family safe and comfortable. Unfortunately, there are certain products common to many homes that might be damaging your health, and a main offender may be in your laundry room. Many commercial varieties of laundry detergent contain pollutants, chemicals, and artificial preservatives, all toxic to human health.

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The Dirty Truth Behind Clean Clothes

When selecting a laundry detergent, it’s common to breeze past the unpronounceable ingredient list that is printed on the back of the product. Heck, sometimes what’s on sale is the biggest factor in which detergent gets purchased. If you do look at the ingredient label on most commercial laundry detergents, you’ll probably notice that surfactants are listed. This ingredient is a wetting agent that helps water penetrate fabrics. The term “surfactants” isn’t simply one ingredient but a reference to a number of different chemical ingredients. [1] Surfactants can release benzene, a toxin linked to cancer and reproductive disorders. [2] [3]

The puzzling thing is that many of the chemicals that are used in brand name detergents aren’t really geared toward keeping our clothes clean. In fact, most detergents are simply aesthetic enhancers, only improving the smell and appearance of clothing. Don’t think the rinse cycle will protect you either — the ingredients in these detergents are known to agitate our health and can contribute to allergies. [4]

What You Can Do

The answer is simple: use organic laundry detergent.

Organic laundry detergent does not contain chlorine, phosphates, and other artificial additives that are dangerous to human health. They are also free of synthetic dyes and perfumes, both of which can cause allergic reactions in some people and skin outbreaks in others.

Chemicals found in conventional laundry detergent emit fumes that are constantly inhaled throughout the day. Breathing in chemical fumes, even at minute concentrations, may have damaging consequences on endocrinological and neurological health. [5] When you use organic laundry soap, you and your family are avoiding those dangers.

Phosphate, a common chemical added to laundry detergent, has significantly damaged the environment over the past 40 years. The use of phosphates in detergents has been increasingly scrutinized, mostly due to their poisonous effects on fish and the environment. [6] Choosing organic detergent can help reduce the chemicals that invade our natural landscape. [7]

In direct response to consumer demand, many manufacturers are attempting to go green with their products in an effort to protect the environment and satisfy their customers. Also, many laundry detergents are now being sold in smaller, concentrated forms, which some may say can reduce waste. However, the best alternative for environmental and physical health is to purchase organic detergents that are made with natural, certified ingredients. They are more gentle on fabrics, healthier for our bodies, and safer for every living thing.

by Dr. Edward Group DC, NP, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM

soap

In chemistry, a soap is a salt of a fatty acid.[1] Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry they are also used in textile spinning[further explanation needed] and are important components of some lubricants.

Soaps for cleaning are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide in an aqueous solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three molecules of fatty acids attach to a single molecule of glycerol.[2] The alkaline solution, which is often called lye (although the term “lye soap” refers almost exclusively to soaps made with sodium hydroxide), brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification.

In this reaction, the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into free fatty acids, and then these combine with the alkali to form crude soap: an amalgam of various soap salts, excess fat or alkali, water, and liberated glycerol (glycerin). The glycerin, a useful by-product, can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, or be isolated for other uses.[2]

Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases, which are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil.[3] Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures of them. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.[4]

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Mechanism of cleansing soaps[edit]

Structure of a micelle, a cell-like structure formed by the aggregation of soap subunits (such as sodium stearate): The exterior of the micelle is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and the interior is lipophilic (attracted to oils).

Action of soap[edit]

When used for cleaning, soap allows insoluble particles to become soluble in water, so they can then be rinsed away. For example: oil/fat is insoluble in water, but when a couple of drops of dish soap are added to the mixture, the oil/fat solubilizes into the water. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water.

Effect of the alkali[edit]

The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap product. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hard—these are used exclusively in greases.

Effects of fats[edit]

Soaps are derivatives of fatty acids. Traditionally they have been made from triglycerides (oils and fats).[5] Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Its saponified product is called sodium tallowate. Typical vegetable oils used in soap making are palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil, and laurel oil. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content and hence, results in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil is sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap, and is reputed for being extra mild. The term “Castile” is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil.

Fatty acid content of various fats used for soapmaking
Lauric acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid Linolenic acid
fats C12 saturated C14 saturated C16 saturated C18 saturated C18 monounsaturated C18 diunsaturated C18 triunsaturated
Tallow 0 4 28 23 35 2 1
Coconut oil 48 18 9 3 7 2 0
Palm kernel oil 46 16 8 3 12 2 0
Laurel oil 54 0 0 0 15 17 0
Olive oil 0 0 11 2 78 10 0
Canola oil 0 1 3 2 58 9 23

History of soaps[edit]

Early history[edit]

Box for Amigo del Obrero (Worker’s Friend) soap from the 20th century, part of the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection

The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.[6] A formula for soap consisting of water, alkali, and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC.

The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) indicates the ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving.[citation needed]

In the reign of Nabonidus (556–539 BC), a recipe for soap consisted of uhulu [ashes], cypress [oil] and sesame [seed oil] “for washing the stones for the servant girls”.[7]

Ancient Roman era[edit]

The word sapo, Latin for soap, first appears in Pliny the Elder‘s Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that the men of the Gauls and Germans were more likely to use it than their female counterparts.[8] Aretaeus of Cappadocia, writing in the first century AD, observes among “Celts, which are men called Gauls, those alkaline substances that are made into balls […] called soap“.[9] The Romans’ preferred method of cleaning the body was to massage oil into the skin and then scrape away both the oil and any dirt with a strigil. The Gauls used soap made from animal fat.

A popular belief claims soap takes its name from a supposed Mount Sapo, where animal sacrifices were supposed to have taken place; tallow from these sacrifices would then have mixed with ashes from fires associated with these sacrifices and with water to produce soap, but there is no evidence of a Mount Sapo in the Roman world and no evidence for the apocryphal story. The Latin word sapo simply means “soap”; it was likely borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum, “tallow”, which appears in Pliny the Elder’s account.[10] Roman animal sacrifices usually burned only the bones and inedible entrails of the sacrificed animals; edible meat and fat from the sacrifices were taken by the humans rather than the gods.

Zosimos of Panopolis, circa 300 AD, describes soap and soapmaking.[11] Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes. The use of soap for personal cleanliness became increasingly common in the 2nd century A.D. According to Galen, the best soaps were Germanic, and soaps from Gaul were second best. This is a reference to true soap in antiquity.[11]

Ancient China[edit]

A detergent similar to soap was manufactured in ancient China from the seeds of Gleditsia sinensis.[12] Another traditional detergent is a mixture of pig pancreas and plant ash called “Zhu yi zi”. True soap, made of animal fat, did not appear in China until the modern era.[13] Soap-like detergents were not as popular as ointments and creams.[12]

Middle East[edit]

A 12th-century Islamic document describes the process of soap production.[14] It mentions the key ingredient, alkali, which later becomes crucial to modern chemistry, derived from al-qaly or “ashes”.

By the 13th century, the manufacture of soap in the Islamic world had become virtually industrialized, with sources in Nablus, Fes, Damascus, and Aleppo.[15][16]

Medieval Europe[edit]

Soapmakers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century (then under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire),[17] and in the eighth century, soap-making was well known in Italy and Spain.[18] The Carolingian capitulary De Villis, dating to around 800, representing the royal will of Charlemagne, mentions soap as being one of the products the stewards of royal estates are to tally. The lands of Medieval Spain were a leading soapmaker by 800, and soapmaking began in the Kingdom of England about 1200.[19]Soapmaking is mentioned both as “women’s work” and as the produce of “good workmen” alongside other necessities, such as the produce of carpenters, blacksmiths, and bakers.[20]

15th–19th centuries[edit]

Advertisement for Pears’ Soap, 1889

A 1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap

Liquid soap

Manufacturing process of soaps/detergents

In France, by the second half of the 15th century, the semi-industrialized professional manufacture of soap was concentrated in a few centers of ProvenceToulon, Hyères, and Marseille — which supplied the rest of France.[21] In Marseilles, by 1525, production was concentrated in at least two factories, and soap production at Marseille tended to eclipse the other Provençal centers.[22] English manufacture tended to concentrate in London.[23]

Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small-scale artisans. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived from the oldest “white soap” of Italy.

In modern times, the use of soap has become commonplace in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. Industrially manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late 18th century, as advertising campaigns in Europe and America promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health.[24]

Until the Industrial Revolution, soapmaking was conducted on a small scale and the product was rough. In 1780 James Keir established a chemical works at Tipton, for the manufacture of alkali from the sulfates of potash and soda, to which he afterwards added a soap manufactory. The method of extraction proceeded on a discovery of Keir’s. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in 1807[25] in London. His son-in-law, Thomas J. Barratt, opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862.

William Gossage produced low-priced, good-quality soap from the 1850s. Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in 1837, initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. American manufacturer Benjamin T. Babbitt introduced marketing innovations that included sale of bar soap and distribution of product samples. William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1886 and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses, formerly called Lever Brothers and now called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large-scale advertising campaigns.

Liquid soap[edit]

See also: Detergent

Liquid soap was not invented until the nineteenth century; in 1865, William Shepphard patented a liquid version of soap. In 1898, B.J. Johnson developed a soap (made of palm and olive oils); his company (the B.J. Johnson Soap Company) introduced “Palmolive” brand soap that same year. This new brand of the new kind of soap became popular rapidly, and to such a degree that B.J. Johnson Soap Company changed its name to Palmolive.[26]

In the early 1900s, other companies began to develop their own liquid soaps. Such products as Pine-Sol and Tide appeared on the market, making the process of cleaning things other than skin (e.g., clothing, floors, bathrooms) much easier.

Liquid soap also works better for more traditional/non-machine washing methods, such as using a washboard.[27]

Soap-making processes[edit]

The industrial production of soap involves continuous processes, such as continuous addition of fat and removal of product. Smaller-scale production involves the traditional batch processes. The three variations are: the ‘cold process’, wherein the reaction takes place substantially at room temperature, the ‘semiboiled’ or ‘hot process’, wherein the reaction takes place near the boiling point, and the ‘fully boiled process’, wherein the reactants are boiled at least once and the glycerol is recovered. There are several types of ‘semiboiled’ hot process methods, the most common being DBHP (Double Boiler Hot Process) and CPHP (Crock Pot Hot Process).[28] Most soapmakers, however, continue to prefer the cold process method. The cold process and hot process (semiboiled) are the simplest and typically used by small artisans and hobbyists producing handmade decorative soaps. The glycerine remains in the soap and the reaction continues for many days after the soap is poured into molds. The glycerine is left during the hot-process method, but at the high temperature employed, the reaction is practically completed in the kettle, before the soap is poured into molds. This simple and quick process is employed in small factories all over the world.

Handmade soap from the cold process also differs from industrially made soap in that an excess of fat is used, beyond that needed to consume the alkali (in a cold-pour process, this excess fat is called “superfatting”), and the glycerine left in acts as a moisturizing agent. However, the glycerine also makes the soap softer and less resistant to becoming “mushy” if left wet. Since it is better to add too much oil and have left-over fat, than to add too much lye and have left-over lye, soap produced from the hot process also contains left-over glycerine and its concomitant pros and cons. Further addition of glycerine and processing of this soap produces glycerin soap. Superfatted soap is more skin-friendly than one without extra fat. However, if too much fat is added, it can leave a “greasy” feel to the skin. Sometimes, an emollient additive, such as jojoba oil or shea butter, is added “at trace” (i.e., the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken in the cold process method) in the belief that nearly all the lye will be spent and it will escape saponification and remain intact. In the case of hot-process soap, an emollient may be added after the initial oils have saponified so they remain unreacted in the finished soap. Superfatting can also be accomplished through a process known as “lye discount” in which the soap maker uses less alkali than required instead of adding extra fats.

Cold process[edit]

The lye is dissolved in water.

Even in the cold soap making process, some heat is usually required; the temperature is usually raised to a point sufficient to ensure complete melting of the fat being used. The batch may also be kept warm for some time after mixing to ensure the alkali (hydroxide) is completely used up. This soap is safe to use after about 12–48 hours, but is not at its peak quality for use for several weeks.

Cold-process soapmaking requires exact measurements of lye and fat amounts and computing their ratio, using saponification charts to ensure the finished product does not contain any excess hydroxide or too much free unreacted fat. Saponification charts should also be used in hot processes, but are not necessary for the “fully boiled hot-process” soaping.

Historically, lye used in the cold process was made from scratch using rainwater and ashes. Soapmakers deemed the lye solution ready for use when an egg would float in it. Homemade lye making for this process was unpredictable and therefore eventually led to the discovery of sodium hydroxide by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy in the early 1800s.

A cold-process soapmaker first looks up the saponification value for each unique fat on an oil specification sheet. Oil specification sheets contain laboratory test results for each fat, including the precise saponification value of the fat. The saponification value for a specific fat will vary by season and by specimen species.[29] This value is used to calculate the exact amount of sodium hydroxide to react with the fat to form soap. The saponification value must be converted into an equivalent sodium hydroxide value for use in cold process soapmaking. Excess unreacted lye in the soap will result in a very high pH and can burn or irritate skin; not enough lye leaves the soap greasy. Most soap makers formulate their recipes with a 2–5% deficit of lye, to account for the unknown deviation of saponification value between their oil batch and laboratory averages.

The lye is dissolved in water. Then, the oils are heated, or melted if they are solid at room temperature. Once the oils are liquefied and the lye is fully dissolved in water, they are combined. This lye-fat mixture is mixed until the two phases (oils and water) are fully emulsified. Emulsification is most easily identified visually when the soap exhibits some level of “trace”, which is the thickening of the mixture. Many modern-day amateur soapmakers often use a stick blender to speed up this process. There are varying levels of trace. Depending on how additives will affect trace, they may be added at light trace, medium trace, or heavy trace. After much stirring, the mixture turns to the consistency of a thin pudding. “Trace” corresponds roughly to viscosity. Essential oils and fragrance oils can be added with the initial soaping oils, but solid additives such as botanicals, herbs, oatmeal, or other additives are most commonly added at light trace, just as the mixture starts to thicken.[citation needed]

The batch is then poured into molds, kept warm with towels or blankets, and left to continue saponification for 12 to 48 hours. (Milk soaps or other soaps with sugars added are the exception. They typically do not require insulation, as the presence of sugar increases the speed of the reaction and thus the production of heat.) During this time, it is normal for the soap to go through a “gel phase”, wherein the opaque soap will turn somewhat transparent for several hours, before once again turning opaque.

After the insulation period, the soap is firm enough to be removed from the mold and cut into bars. At this time, it is safe to use the soap, since saponification is in essence complete. However, cold-process soaps are typically cured and hardened on a drying rack for 2–6 weeks before use. During this cure period, trace amounts of residual lye are consumed by saponification and excess water evaporates.

During the curing process, some molecules in the outer layer of the solid soap react with the carbon dioxide of the air and produce a dusty sheet of sodium carbonate. This reaction is more intense if the mass is exposed to wind or low temperatures.

Hot processes[edit]

Hot-processed soaps are created by encouraging the saponification reaction by adding heat to speed up the reaction. In contrast with cold-pour soap which is poured into molds and for the most part only then saponifies, hot-process soaping for the most part saponifies the oils completely and only then is poured into molds.

In the hot process, the hydroxide and the fat are heated and mixed together at 80–100 °C, a little below boiling point, until saponification is complete, which, before modern scientific equipment, the soapmaker determined by taste (the sharp, distinctive taste of the hydroxide disappears after it is saponified) or by eye; the experienced eye can tell when gel stage and full saponification has occurred. Beginners can find this information through research and classes. Tasting soap for readiness is not recommended, as sodium and potassium hydroxides, when not saponified, are highly caustic.

An advantage of the fully boiled hot process in soapmaking is the exact amount of hydroxide required need not be known with great accuracy. They originated when the purity of the alkali hydroxides were unreliable, as these processes can use even naturally found alkalis, such as wood ashes and potash deposits. In the fully boiled process, the mix is actually boiled (100+ °C), and, after saponification has occurred, the “neat soap” is precipitated from the solution by adding common salt, and the excess liquid is drained off. This excess liquid carries away with it much of the impurities and color compounds in the fat, to leave a purer, whiter soap, and with practically all the glycerine removed. The hot, soft soap is then pumped into a mold. The spent hydroxide solution is processed for recovery of glycerine.

Molds[edit]

Logs of soap after demolding.

Many commercially available soap molds are made of silicone or various types of plastic, although many soapmaking hobbyists may use cardboard boxes lined with a plastic film. Wooden molds, unlined or lined with silicone sleeves, are also readily available to the general public. Soaps can be made in long bars that are cut into individual portions, or cast into individual molds.

Purification and finishing[edit]

In the fully boiled process on an industrial scale, the soap is further purified to remove any excess sodium hydroxide, glycerol, and other impurities, color compounds, etc. These components are removed by boiling the crude soap curds in water and then precipitating the soap with salt.

At this stage, the soap still contains too much water, which has to be removed. This was traditionally done on chill rolls, which produced the soap flakes commonly used in the 1940s and 1950s. This process was superseded by spray dryers and then by vacuum dryers.

The dry soap (about 6–12% moisture) is then compacted into small pellets or noodles. These pellets or noodles are then ready for soap finishing, the process of converting raw soap pellets into a saleable product, usually bars.

Soap pellets are combined with fragrances and other materials and blended to homogeneity in an amalgamator (mixer). The mass is then discharged from the mixer into a refiner, which, by means of an auger, forces the soap through a fine wire screen. From the refiner, the soap passes over a roller mill (French milling or hard milling) in a manner similar to calendering paper or plastic or to making chocolate liquor. The soap is then passed through one or more additional refiners to further plasticize the soap mass. Immediately before extrusion, the mass is passed through a vacuum chamber to remove any trapped air. It is then extruded into a long log or blank, cut to convenient lengths, passed through a metal detector, and then stamped into shape in refrigerated tools. The pressed bars are packaged in many ways.

Sand or pumice may be added to produce a scouring soap. The scouring agents serve to remove dead cells from the skin surface being cleaned. This process is called exfoliation. Many newer materials that are effective, yet do not have the sharp edges and poor particle size distribution of pumice, are used for exfoliating soaps.

To make antibacterial soap, compounds such as triclosan or triclocarban can be added. There is some concern that use of antibacterial soaps and other products might encourage antibiotic resistance in microorganisms.[30]

Dishwashing liquid

Dishwashing liquid (BrE: washing-up liquid), known as dishwashing soap, dish detergent and dish soap, is a detergent used to assist in dishwashing. It is usually a highly-foaming mixture of surfactants with low skin irritation, and is primarily used for hand washing of glasses, plates, cutlery, and cooking utensils in a sink or bowl. In addition to its primary use, dishwashing liquid also has various informal applications, such as for creating bubbles, clothes washing and cleaning oil-affected birds.

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History[edit]

Main article: Detergent

(sodium

carbonate) is used for dishwashing,[1] and may be used in areas with hard water.[2] It was used for dishwashing before detergents were invented in Germany during World War I.[3] Liquid detergent used for dishwashing was first manufactured in the middle of the 20th century. Dishwashing detergent producers started production in the United States in the 1930–1940s.[3][4] Teepol, the first such in Europe, commenced production in 1942.[5]

In 2005, dishwashing detergent retail sales totaled nearly USD $10 billion worldwide.[4]

Types[edit]

Dishwashing detergents for dishwashers are manufactured and marketed variously as cartridges, gel, liquids, pacs, powder, and tablets.[6] Any dishwashing liquid may contain bleach, enzymes, or rinsing aids.[6] Some dishwashing detergents may be homemade, using ingredients such as borax, essential oil, eucalyptus oil and grated bar soap, among others.[7]

Common ingredients[edit]

The main ingredient is water; the main active ingredients are detergents. There are other thickening and stabilizing agents.[8] Other ingredients may include surfactants, hydrotrope, salts, preservatives, fragrances, and dyes.[4]

Surfactants remove grease and stuck food particles.[4] They may also provide foam.[4]

Some dishwashing detergents may contain phosphorus, an ingredient which at least two states within the United States have limited use in dishwashing detergent.[9][10] According to the Washington Post, phosphorus keeps “minerals from interfering with the cleaning process and prevent food particles from depositing again on dishes.”[10] According to Time magazine, “One reason detergent makers have been using large amounts of phosphorus is that it binds with dirt and keeps it suspended in water, allowing the other cleaning agents to do their best work. Phosphorus is especially important in regions with hard water because the presence of lots of minerals can interfere with cleaning agents.”[11] Phosphorus that runs into freshwater lakes and rivers can cause algal blooms.[10][11]Phosphate-free detergent reduces the amount of phosphate wastewater treatment plants must clean up.[10] In the 21st century phosphates began to be reduced in percentage terms as an ingredient, leading to a New York Times report that said “low- or phosphate-free dishwasher detergents it tested, including those from environmentally friendly product lines that have been on the market for years, none matched the performance of products with phosphates”.[12]

In 2010, the United States FDA raised health concerns over triclosan, an antibacterial substance used in some dish liquids.[13] Elsewhere, triclosan has been found to create problems at wastewater treatment plants, whereby it can “sabotage some sludge-processing microbes and promote drug resistance in others.”[14] The United States FDA has found that triclosan provides no health benefits over soap and water.[15] As of 2014, at least one state within the United States has banned triclosan in dishwashing liquids.[15]

Many dishwashing liquids contain perfume which can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis.[16]

Brands[edit]

Euromonitor International research on dishwashing trends in eighty countries identified producers and brands with the largest 2013 retail value shares.[17] Five multinational companies (Procter and Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive, Henkel, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever and HITRO PLUS),collectively held the greatest retail value shares in sixty-five of those countries.[17] Summaries below show percentages of retail value shares and leading brand names in each country, according to Euromonitor International’s 2013 reports.

Procter and Gamble held the highest retail value share percentages in twenty countries:[17] with Fairy brand, United Kingdom, Estonia, Saudi Arabia (56%), United Arab Emirates (34%), Latvia (35%), Lithuania (32%), Finland (23%), Serbia (38%), Bosnia-Herzegovina (30%), Georgia (26%) and Uzbekistan (26%); Sweden (39%) with brand Yes, the Swedish Fairy brand; Greece (40%) with Fairy and Ava brands; with Fairy and Mif brands, Kazakhstan (28%) and Russia (29%); and Ukraine (41%) with Fairy and Gala brands; Canada (39%) with Cascade and Dawn brands; United States (52%) with Cascade brand; Mexico (44%) with Salvo and Dawn brands; Philippines (54%) with Joy brand.

Unilever held highest retail value share percentages in thirteen countries:[17] Netherlands (25%); with Sunlight brand, Cameroon (32%), South Africa (56%), Indonesia, Thailand (66%); India (61%) with Vim brand; Vietnam (56%) with Sunlight Green Tea, Sunlight Lemon, and Sunlight Active Gel; France (34%) with Sun Turbo Gel and Sun tout en 1; with Sun brand, Switzerland (31%), and Belgium (30%); Argentina (54%) with Ala and Ala Ultra brands; Chile (57%) with Quix brand; and Uruguay (56%) with Hurra Nevex and Cif brands.

Henkel held highest retail value share percentages in nine countries:[17] Germany (29%); Romania (35%); Algeria (22%) with Isis Pril; Egypt with KGaA, Port Said Detergents, and Pril brands; Croatia (22%) with Pur and Somat brands; Slovakia (33%) with Somat brand; Slovenia (35%) with Pril brand; Hungary (30%) with Pur and Somat brands; and Azerbaijan (22%) with Pril and Pemolux brands.

Reckitt Benckiser held highest retail value share percentages in nine countries:[17] Italy (31%), Spain (29%); with Finish brand: Australia (38%), New Zealand (38%), Austria (32%), Ireland (29%), and Israel (27%); Denmark (30%) with Neophos brand; and Portugal (22%) with Calgonit brand.

Colgate-Palmolive held highest retail value share percentages in nine countries:[17] Morocco (23%); Tunisia (24%) with Citrol brand; Malaysia (29%); Pakistan (55%) with Max brand; with Axion, Costa Rica (39%), Dominican Republic (31%), Colombia (40%), and Ecuador (39%); Guatemala (39%) with Axion and Doña Blanca brands.

Research summaries for three countries listed combined retail value shares that included domestic and international producers:[17] Brazil‘s domestic producers led hand dishwashing products with Química Amparo, Bombril, and Flora Produtos de Higiene e Limpeza; Poland’s Grupa Inco with Ludwik and Lucek brands, and Henka Polska with Pur and Somat brands, led sales with a combined retail value share of 46%; and in Belarus the Russian company PZ Cussons PLC accounted for 24% of retail value shares, with Morning Fresh brand, followed by Procter and Gamble (20%) and Henkel (19%).

Summaries for two countries listed combined results for international companies and brands:[17] in the Czech Republic, Procter and Gamble, Henkel, and Reckitt Benckiser held a combined 71% retail value share; and in Turkey Reckitt Benckiser’s Finish brand led with 32% retail value share for automatic dishwashing, while Henkel had 31% retail value share, and Pril brand led hand dishwashing liquid with a 42% retail value share.

In fifteen markets, domestic producers held the greatest 2013 retail value share with local brands:[17] in China, Guangzhou Liby Enterprise Group held a 30% retail value share; Hong Kong company Lam Soon held 44% retail value share with Axe and Labour brands; Singapore company Lion Corp led sales with Mama Lemon, Mama Lemon Antibacterial, and Mama Royal brands; South Korean company LG Household & Health Care Ltd. held a 54% retail value share with dishwashing brands Pong Pong, Natural Pong and Safe; in Japan, Kao held a 33% retail value share with CuCute brand; Alimentos Polar in Venezuela held a 37% retail value share with Las Laves brand. In Nigeria, PZ Industries PLC held a 63% share, with Morning Fresh brand. In Norway, Lilleborg AS held 71% retail value share, with Sun and Zalo brands; in Bulgaria, Ficosota Syntez held 29% retail value share, with Eho and Feya brands; in Macedonia, Saponia dd held 22% retail value share; in Iran, Paxan Co. held 24% retail value share with Barf, Orchid, Goli, and Pride brands; in Bolivia, Astrix SA held 47%retail value share with Ola brand; in Peru, Intradevco Industrial SA held 63% retail value share with Sapolio brand; in Venezuela, Alimentos Polar held 37% retail value share with Las Llaves brand. The summary of dishwashing in Kenya noted most consumers there use alternatives like laundry detergent powder or soap instead of dishwashing liquids, but listed Haco as the leading dishwashing liquid, from Haco Tiger Brands Ltd.[18]

Primary uses[edit]

Dishwashing liquid is used primarily for removing food from used dishes and tableware.[4][6] Heavy soil (large food particles) is generally scraped from the dishes before using.[6] Detergent formula can vary based on use (hand or automatic).[4]

Hand dishwashing[edit]

Dishwashing liquid mixed with water on the left side of a sink

Hand dishwashing is generally performed in the absence of a dishwashing machine, when large “hard-to-clean” items are present, or through preference.[4] Some dishwashing liquids can harm household silver, fine glassware, anything with gold leaf, disposable plastics, and any objects made of brass, bronze, cast iron, pewter, tin, or wood, especially when combined with hot water and the action of a dishwasher.[6] When dishwashing liquid is used on such objects it is intended that they be washed by hand.[6]

Hand dishwashing detergents utilize surfactants to play the primary role in cleaning.[4] The reduced surface tension of dishwashing water, and increasing solubility of modern surfactant mixtures, allows the water to run off the dishes in a dish rack very quickly. However, most people also rinse the dishes with pure water to make sure to get rid of any soap residue that could affect the taste of the food.[19]

Dishwashing liquid can be a skin irritant and cause hand eczema. Those with “sensitive skin” are advised amongst other things to persuade someone else to do the washing up.[20]

Automatic dishwashing[edit]

Automatic dishwashing involves the use of a dishwashing machine or other apparatus.[4] It is generally chosen through convenience, sanitation, or personal preference.[4] The cleaning is less reliant on the detergent’s surfactants but more reliant on machine’s hot water as well as the detergent’s builders, bleach, and enzymes.[4] Automatic dishwashing detergents’ surfactants generally have less foam to avoid disrupting the machine.[4]

Informal uses[edit]

Reader’s Digest notes its use as an ant killer, weed killer, to help spread water-borne fertilizer, and to wash human hair.[21] Good Housekeeping says it can be used mixed with vinegar to attract and drown fruit flies.[22] Dishwashing detergent has been used to clean mirrors as well as windows.[23]

Active ingredient in opensource bathroom and kitchen cleaner[edit]

Twibright Pling, an open source general purpose cleaner for glazed, plastic, chrome and inox bathroom and kitchen surfaces, published by Twibright Labs, uses dishwashing liquid as one of active ingredients.

Bubbles[edit]

Dishwashing liquid can be mixed with water and additional ingredients such as glycerin and sugar to produce a bubble-blowing solution.[24]

Clothes washing[edit]

Dishwashing liquid may be used for cleaning delicate clothing fabrics such as hosiery and lingerie.[25]

Decal application[edit]

Dishwashing liquid is frequently recommended in a dilute solution to make decals and vinyl graphics easier to position when applying.[26][27]

Leak detection[edit]

In industry, dishwashing liquid is also used to inspect pressurized equipment for leaks, such as propane fittings.[28][29] It is used to inspect pneumatic tires for flats, as well as for quality assurance during the installation process, and as a mounting bead lubricant.[30][31][32]

Mortar mix[edit]

It can be used to mix mortar when there is no plasticizer available on the building sites.[33]

Pest deterrent[edit]

Dishwashing liquid has uses as an ingredient in making homemade garden pest deterrents. Oregon State University‘s Cooperative Extension Service notes the use of dishwashing liquid to get rid of spidermites.[34] Dish soap has also been used to deter aphids.[34][35]In some instances, the dish soap may be toxic to plant leaves and cause them to “burn”.[34] Use of soap or dish detergent to help spread pesticide on plants is noted by University of Georgia extension service, but not recommended.[36]

Stain remover[edit]

A solution of dishwashing liquid and water may be used to remove coffee, tea, soda and fruit juice stains from fabrics.[37][38] One dishwashing liquid brand has been used to remove stains from white or lightly-colored cloth napkins.[39]

Treatment for oil-affected birds and other wildlife[edit]

An oiled Gannet being washed

Dishwashing liquid has been used to treat birds affected by oil spills.[40][41] After the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the International Bird Rescue Research Center received hundreds of cases of dishwashing liquid that were used to clean up birds and other animals contaminated with spilled oil.[42][43][44] More dishwashing liquid was donated during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the International Bird Rescue Research Center and the Marine Mammal Center.[45] Some dishwashing soap brands donated to support oiled birds during the Deepwater Horizon spill have received criticism for being petroleum-based.[40]

Dish soap has been tested as an oil-removing agent on polar bear fur in a study by the Alaska Zoo should a spill occur in the Arctic.[46]

from wikipedia

detergent

A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with “cleaning properties in dilute solutions.”[1] These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.

In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar). Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not hydrophilic, detergents are also foaming agents to varying degrees.

Chemical classification of detergents[edit]

Detergents are classified into three broad groupings, depending on the electrical charge of the surfactants.

Anionic detergents[edit]

Typical anionic detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonates. The alkylbenzene portion of these anions is lipophilic and the sulfonate is hydrophilic. Two different varieties have been popularized, those with branched alkyl groups and those with linear alkyl groups. The former were largely phased out in economically advanced societies because they are poorly biodegradable.[2] An estimated 6 billion kilograms of anionic detergents are produced annually for domestic markets.

Bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid (DOC), are anionic detergents produced by the liver to aid in digestion and absorption of fats and oils.

Three kinds of anionic detergents: a branched sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, linear sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and a soap.

Cationic detergents[edit]

Cationic detergents are similar to the anionic ones, with a hydrophobic component, but, instead of the anionic sulfonate group, the cationic surfactants have quaternary ammonium as the polar end. The ammonium center is positively charged.[2]

Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents[edit]

Non-ionic detergents are characterized by their uncharged, hydrophilic headgroups. Typical non-ionic detergents are based on polyoxyethylene or a glycoside. Common examples of the former include Tween, Triton, and the Brij series. These materials are also known as ethoxylates or PEGlyates and their metabolites, nonylphenol. Glycosides have a sugar as their uncharged hydrophilic headgroup. Examples include octyl thioglucoside and maltosides. HEGA and MEGA series detergents are similar, possessing a sugar alcohol as headgroup.

Zwitterionic detergents possess a net zero charge arising from the presence of equal numbers of +1 and −1 charged chemical groups. Examples include CHAPS.

See surfactants for more applications.

History[edit]

In World War I, there was a shortage of oils. Synthetic detergents were first made in Germany.[3][4]

Major applications of detergents[edit]

Laundry detergents[edit]

Main article: laundry detergent

One of the largest applications of detergents is for washing clothes. The formulations are complex, reflecting the diverse demands of the application and the highly competitive consumer market. In general, laundry detergents contain water softeners, surfactants, bleach, enzymes, brighteners, fragrances, and many other agents. The formulation is strongly affected by the temperature of the cleaning water and varies from country to country.

The major components of laundry detergents is anionic surfactants, alkaline builders, water softening agents and anti re deposition agents. Higher end detergents contain enzymes and optical brighteners. Some liquid detergents contain non ionic surfactants.

Sodium tripolyphosphate was an excellent builder used in laundry detergent powders. However, due to issues of biodegradability many countries have banned the use of phosphates in detergents. Manufacturers are using substitutes such as EDTA and other biodegradable chemicals instead.

Fuel additives[edit]

Both carburetors and fuel injector components of Otto engines benefit from detergents in the fuels to prevent fouling. Concentrations are about 300 ppm. Typical detergents are long-chain amines and amides such as polyisobuteneamine and polyisobuteneamide/succinimide.[5]

Biological reagent[edit]

Reagent grade detergents are employed for the isolation and purification of integral membrane proteins found in biological cells.[6] Solubilization of cell membrane bilayers requires a detergent that can enter the inner membrane monolayer.[7] Advancements in the purity and sophistication of detergents have facilitated structural and biophysical characterization of important membrane proteins such as ion channels also the disrupt membrane by binding Lipopolysaccharide,[8] transporters, signaling receptors, and photosystem II.[9]

Soapless soap[edit]

Soapless soap refers to a soapfree liquid cleanser with a slightly acidic pH.[10] Soapless soaps are used in an array of products.

from wikipedia

Tide

Tide (Alo, Vizir or Ace in some countries) is a laundry detergent manufactured by Procter & Gamble, introduced in 1946.[2]

Background[edit]

The household chore of doing the laundry began to change with the introduction of washing powders in the 1880s. These new laundry products were pulverized soap. New cleaning-product marketing successes, such as the 1890s introduction of the N. K. Fairbank Company’s Gold Dust Washing Powder (which used a breakthrough hydrogenation process in its formulation),[3] and Hudson’s heavily advertised product, Rinso,[4] proved that there was a ready market for better cleaning agents. Henkel & Cie‘s “self-activating” (or self bleaching) cleaner, Persil; (introduced in 1907);[5] the early synthetic detergent, BASF‘s Fewa (introduced in 1932); and Procter & Gamble‘s 1933 totally synthetic creation, Dreft (marketed for use on infant-wear)[6] —all indicated significant advances in the laundry cleaning product market.

The detergent business was further revolutionized with the discovery of the alkylbenzene sulfonates, which, when combined with the use of chemical “builders”, made machine washing with hard water possible.[6] This presented Procter and Gamble with the opportunity to create a product such as Tide.

History[edit]

The original Tide laundry detergent was a synthetic designed specifically for heavy-duty, machine cleaning (an advance over the milder cleaning capabilities of FeWA and Dreft). Tide was first introduced in U.S. test markets in 1946 as the world’s first heavy-duty detergent, with nationwide distribution accomplished in 1949. Tide claimed it was “America’s Washday Favorite.” Authority was quickly gained in the U.S. detergent market, dwarfing the sales of Ivory Snow; and accelerating the demise of two of its main competing products, Rinso and Gold Dust Washing Powder, both then Lever Brothers brands. These other brands came in the more familiar soap-powder and soap-flake forms. Tide, however, came shaped as a white powdered bead. The line was expanded to include an orange-tinted clear liquid form in 1984. Today, most formulations of liquid Tide, both concentrated and regular, are dark blue, with the exception of “Tide Free”, which is clear. Each year, Tide researchers duplicate the mineral content of water from all parts of the United States and wash 50,000 loads of laundry to test Tide detergent’s consistency and performance.

In 2006, the development of Tide was designated an ACS National Historic Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance as the first heavy-duty synthetic detergent.[7]

As of January 2013 Tide has more than 30% of the liquid-detergent market, with more than twice as much in sales as the second most-popular brand Gain, although it costs about 50% more than the average liquid detergent.

In some areas, Tide has become such a hot commodity item, that criminals steal it from stores to resell. Police call the detergent “liquid gold” on the black market and it’s been known to be traded or sold for illegal drugs.[8][9]

Brand[edit]

In a 2009 survey, consumers ranked Tide among the three brands they would be least likely to give up during the Great Recession.[8] The Tide trademark is an easily recognized, distinctive orange-and-yellow bulls-eye. This original logo was designed by Donald Deskey, an architect and famous industrial designer. The logo was slightly modified for the product’s fiftieth anniversary in 1996, and remains in use today.

Tide was the first product to be nationally packaged using Day-Glo colors—strikingly eye-catching when first introduced in 1959.[10]

The Tide brand is on at least six powders and liquid detergents in the United States.

Product line[edit]

Tide is marketed under various sub-brands, such as 2x Ultra Tide.[11] In the late 1960s and early 1970s, it was branded as Tide XK (the XK standing for Xtra Kleaning),[citation needed] but it was rebranded simply as Tide later.

An addition to the Tide family, Tide Coldwater was formulated to remove stains while saving energy because it does not require hot or even warm water.[11] Tide Free is marketed as being free from dyes or perfumes.[citation needed] Tide-To-Go is a product packaged in a pen-like format and intended to remove small stains on the spot, without further laundering.[11]

In Puerto Rico[12] and elsewhere in Latin America, the Tide formula is marketed under the name Ace[citation needed] (except in Ecuador and Panama, where it is sold under the same Tide brand as is in current use in the U.S.)[citation needed] In Turkey, Tide is branded as Alo.[citation needed] In Poland it is sold as Vizir.

Tide is sold in the UK as Daz Go-Pods; they have the marking “Daz/Vizir/Tide” on the back and bear the same distinctive design.

Since 2012, Tide has sold laundry detergent pods, making an estimated 15% of market sales.[13][14]

from wikipedia