Category Archives: foods

Freeze-drying

Freeze-drying—technically known as lyophilisation, lyophilization, or cryodesiccation—is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material or make the material more convenient for transport. Freeze-drying works by freezing the material and then reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water in the material to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase.

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History[edit]

The process of freeze-drying was invented in 1906 by Arsène d’Arsonval and his assistant Frédéric Bordas at the laboratory of biophysics of Collège de France in Paris.[1][2] In 1911 Downey Harris and Shackle developed[3] the freeze-drying method of preserving live rabies virus which eventually led to development of the first antirabies vaccine.

Modern freeze-drying was developed during World War II. Blood serum being sent to Europe from the US for medical treatment of the wounded required refrigeration, but because of the lack of simultaneous refrigeration and transport, many serum supplies were spoiling before reaching their intended recipients. The freeze-drying process was developed as a commercial technique that enabled serum to be rendered chemically stable and viable without having to be refrigerated. Shortly thereafter, the freeze-dry process was applied to penicillin and bone, and lyophilization became recognized as an important technique for preservation of biologicals. Since that time, freeze-drying has been used as a preservation or processing technique for a wide variety of products. These applications include the following but are not limited to: the processing of food,[4] pharmaceuticals,[5] and diagnostic kits; the restoration of water damaged documents;[6] the preparation of river-bottom sludge for hydrocarbon analysis; the manufacturing of ceramics used in the semiconductor industry; the production of synthetic skin; the manufacture of sulfur-coated vials; and the restoration of historic/reclaimed boat hulls.

Stages[edit]

In a typical phase diagram, the boundary between gas and liquid runs from the triple point to the critical point. Freeze-drying (blue arrow) brings the system around the triple point, avoiding the direct liquid-gas transition seen in ordinary drying time (green arrow).

There are four stages in the complete drying process: pretreatment, freezing, primary drying, and secondary drying.

Pretreatment[edit]

Pretreatment includes any method of treating the product prior to freezing. This may include concentrating the product, formulation revision (i.e., addition of components to increase stability, preserve appearance, and/or improve processing), decreasing a high-vapor-pressure solvent, or increasing the surface area. In many instances the decision to pretreat a product is based on theoretical knowledge of freeze-drying and its requirements, or is demanded by cycle time or product quality considerations.[7]

Freezing[edit]

In a lab, this is often done by placing the material in a freeze-drying flask and rotating the flask in a bath, called a shell freezer, which is cooled by mechanical refrigeration, dry ice in aqueous methanol, or liquid nitrogen. On a larger scale, freezing is usually done using a freeze-drying machine. In this step, it is important to cool the material below its triple point, the lowest temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of the material can coexist. This ensures that sublimation rather than melting will occur in the following steps. Larger crystals are easier to freeze-dry. To produce larger crystals, the product should be frozen slowly or can be cycled up and down in temperature. This cycling process is called annealing. However, in the case of food, or objects with formerly-living cells, large ice crystals will break the cell walls (a problem discovered, and solved, by Clarence Birdseye), resulting in the destruction of more cells, which can result in increasingly poor texture and nutritive content. In this case, the freezing is done rapidly, in order to lower the material to below its eutectic point quickly, thus avoiding the formation of ice crystals. Usually, the freezing temperatures are between −50 °C and −80 °C (-58 °F and -112 °F) . The freezing phase is the most critical in the whole freeze-drying process, because the product can be spoiled if improperly done.

Amorphous materials do not have a eutectic point, but they do have a critical point, below which the product must be maintained to prevent melt-back or collapse during primary and secondary drying.

Primary drying[edit]

During the primary drying phase, the pressure is lowered (to the range of a few millibars), and enough heat is supplied to the material for the ice to sublime. The amount of heat necessary can be calculated using the sublimating molecules’ latent heat of sublimation. In this initial drying phase, about 95% of the water in the material is sublimated. This phase may be slow (can be several days in the industry), because, if too much heat is added, the material’s structure could be altered.

In this phase, pressure is controlled through the application of partial vacuum. The vacuum speeds up the sublimation, making it useful as a deliberate drying process. Furthermore, a cold condenser chamber and/or condenser plates provide a surface(s) for the water vapour to re-solidify on. This condenser plays no role in keeping the material frozen; rather, it prevents water vapor from reaching the vacuum pump, which could degrade the pump’s performance. Condenser temperatures are typically below −50 °C (−58 °F).

It is important to note that, in this range of pressure, the heat is brought mainly by conduction or radiation; the convection effect is negligible, due to the low air density.

Secondary drying[edit]

The secondary drying phase aims to remove unfrozen water molecules, since the ice was removed in the primary drying phase. This part of the freeze-drying process is governed by the material’s adsorption isotherms. In this phase, the temperature is raised higher than in the primary drying phase, and can even be above 0 °C, to break any physico-chemical interactions that have formed between the water molecules and the frozen material. Usually the pressure is also lowered in this stage to encourage desorption (typically in the range of microbars, or fractions of a pascal). However, there are products that benefit from increased pressure as well.

After the freeze-drying process is complete, the vacuum is usually broken with an inert gas, such as nitrogen, before the material is sealed.

At the end of the operation, the final residual water content in the product is extremely low, around 1% to 4%.

Properties of freeze-dried products[edit]

If a freeze-dried substance is sealed to prevent the reabsorption of moisture, the substance may be stored at room temperature without refrigeration, and be protected against spoilage for many years. Preservation is possible because the greatly reduced water content inhibits the action of microorganisms and enzymes that would normally spoil or degrade the substance.

Freeze-drying also causes less damage to the substance than other dehydration methods using higher temperatures. Freeze-drying does not usually cause shrinkage or toughening of the material being dried. In addition, flavours, smells and nutritional content generally remain unchanged, making the process popular for preserving food. However, water is not the only chemical capable of sublimation, and the loss of other volatile compounds such as acetic acid (vinegar) and alcohols can yield undesirable results.

Freeze-dried products can be rehydrated (reconstituted) much more quickly and easily because the process leaves microscopic pores. The pores are created by the ice crystals that sublimate, leaving gaps or pores in their place. This is especially important when it comes to pharmaceutical uses. Freeze-drying can also be used to increase the shelf life of some pharmaceuticals for many years.

Protectants[edit]

Similar to cryoprotectants, some molecules protect freeze-dried material. Known as lyoprotectants, these molecules are typically polyhydroxy compounds such as sugars (mono-, di-, and polysaccharides), polyalcohols, and their derivatives. Trehalose and sucrose are natural lyoprotectants. Trehalose is produced by a variety of plant (for example selaginella and arabidopsis thaliana), fungi, and invertebrate animals that remain in a state of suspended animation during periods of drought (also known as anhydrobiosis).

Applications[edit]

Pharmaceutical and biotechnology[edit]

Lyophilized 5% w/v sucrose cake in a pharmaceutical glass vial

Pharmaceutical companies often use freeze-drying to increase the shelf life of the products, such as live virus vaccines,[8] biologics[9] and other injectables. By removing the water from the material and sealing the material in a glass vial, the material can be easily stored, shipped, and later reconstituted to its original form for injection. Another example from the pharmaceutical industry is the use of freeze drying to produce tablets or wafers, the advantage of which is less excipient as well as a rapidly absorbed and easily administered dosage form.

Freeze-dried pharmaceutical products are produced as lyophilized powders for reconstitution in vials and more recently in prefilled syringes for self-administration by a patient. Many biopharmaceutical products based on therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies require lyophilization for stability. Examples of lyophilized biopharmaceuticals include blockbuster drugs such as Etanercept (Enbrel by Pfizer), Infliximab (Remicade by Janssen Biotech), Rituximab and Trastuzumab (Herceptin by Genentech).

Freeze-drying is also used in manufacturing of raw materials for pharmaceutical products. Active Pharmaceutical Product Ingredients (APIs) are lyophilized to achieve chemical stability under room temperature storage. Bulk lyophilization of APIs is typically conducted using trays instead of glass vials.

Dry powders of probiotics are often produced by bulk freeze-drying of live microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacteria.[10]

Food and agriculture-based industries[edit]

Freeze dried bacon bars

Freeze-dried coffee, a form of instant coffee

Although freeze-drying is used to preserve food, its earliest use in agriculturally based industries was in processing of crops such as peanuts/groundnuts and tobacco in the early 1970s. Because heat, commonly used in crop and food processing, invariably alters the structure and chemistry of the product, the main objective of freeze-drying is to avoid heat and thus preserve the structural and chemical integrity/composition with little or no alteration.[11] Therefore, freeze-dried crops and foods are closest to the natural composition with respect to structure and chemistry. The process came to wide public attention when it was used to create freeze-dried ice cream, an example of astronaut food. It is also widely used to produce essences or flavourings to add to food.

Because of its light weight per volume of reconstituted food, freeze-dried products are popular and convenient for hikers. More dried food can be carried per the same weight of wet food, and remains in good condition for longer than wet food, which tends to spoil quickly. Hikers reconstitute the food with water available at point of use.

Instant coffee is sometimes freeze-dried, despite the high costs of the freeze-driers used. The coffee is often dried by vaporization in a hot air flow, or by projection onto hot metallic plates. Freeze-dried fruits are used in some breakfast cereal or sold as a snack, and are an especially popular snack choice among toddlers, preschoolers, hikers and dieters, as well as being used by some pet owners as a treat for pet birds. Most commercial freezing is done either in cold air kept in motion by fans (blast freezing) or by placing the foodstuffs in packages or metal trays on refrigerated surfaces (contact freezing).

Culinary herbs, vegetables (such as vitamin-rich spinach and watercress), the temperature sensitive baker`s yeast suspension and the nutrient-rich pre-boiled rice can also be freeze-dried. During three hours of drying the spinach and watercress has lost over 98% of its water content, followed by the yeast suspension with 96% and the pre-boiled rice by 75%.[12] The air-dried herbs are far more common and less expensive. Freeze dried tofu is a popular foodstuff in Japan (“Koya-dofu” or “shimi-dofu” in Japanese).

Technological industry[edit]

In chemical synthesis, products are often freeze-dried to make them more stable, or easier to dissolve in water for subsequent use.

In bioseparations, freeze-drying can be used also as a late-stage purification procedure, because it can effectively remove solvents. Furthermore, it is capable of concentrating substances with low molecular weights that are too small to be removed by a filtration membrane. Freeze-drying is a relatively expensive process. The equipment is about three times as expensive as the equipment used for other separation processes, and the high energy demands lead to high energy costs. Furthermore, freeze-drying also has a long process time, because the addition of too much heat to the material can cause melting or structural deformations. Therefore, freeze-drying is often reserved for materials that are heat-sensitive, such as proteins, enzymes, microorganisms, and blood plasma. The low operating temperature of the process leads to minimal damage of these heat-sensitive products.

In nanotechnology, freeze-drying is used for nanotube purification[13] to avoid aggregation due to capillary forces during regular thermal vaporization drying.

Other uses[edit]

Organizations such as the Document Conservation Laboratory at the United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) have done studies on freeze-drying as a recovery method of water-damaged books and documents. While recovery is possible, restoration quality depends on the material of the documents. If a document is made of a variety of materials, which have different absorption properties, expansion will occur at a non-uniform rate, which could lead to deformations. Water can also cause mold to grow or make inks bleed. In these cases, freeze-drying may not be an effective restoration method.

In bacteriology freeze-drying is used to conserve special strains.

In high-altitude environments, the low temperatures and pressures can sometimes produce natural mummies by a process of freeze-drying.

Advanced ceramics processes sometimes use freeze-drying to create a formable powder from a sprayed slurry mist. Freeze-drying creates softer particles with a more homogeneous chemical composition than traditional hot spray drying, but it is also more expensive.

Freeze-drying is also used for floral preservation. Wedding bouquet preservation has become very popular with brides who want to preserve their wedding day flowers[14]

A new form of burial which previously freeze-dries the body with liquid nitrogen has been developed by the Swedish company Promessa Organic AB, which puts it forward as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional casket and cremation burials.

Equipment[edit]

Unloading trays of freeze-dried material from a small cabinet-type freeze-dryer

There are essentially three categories of freeze-dryers: the manifold freeze-dryer, the rotary freeze-dryer and the tray style freeze-dryer. Two components are common to all types of freeze-dryers: a vacuum pump to reduce the ambient gas pressure in a vessel containing the substance to be dried and a condenser to remove the moisture by condensation on a surface cooled to −40 to −80 °C (−40 to −112 °F). The manifold, rotary and tray type freeze-dryers differ in the method by which the dried substance is interfaced with a condenser. In manifold freeze-dryers a short usually circular tube is used to connect multiple containers with the dried product to a condenser. The rotary and tray freeze-dryers have a single large reservoir for the dried substance.

Rotary freeze-dryers are usually used for drying pellets, cubes and other pourable substances. The rotary dryers have a cylindrical reservoir that is rotated during drying to achieve a more uniform drying throughout the substance. Tray style freeze-dryers usually have rectangular reservoir with shelves on which products, such as pharmaceutical solutions and tissue extracts, can be placed in trays, vials and other containers.

Manifold freeze-dryers are usually used in a laboratory setting when drying liquid substances in small containers and when the product will be used in a short period of time. A manifold dryer will dry the product to less than 5% moisture content. Without heat, only primary drying (removal of the unbound water) can be achieved. A heater must be added for secondary drying, which will remove the bound water and will produce a lower moisture content.

Tray style freeze-dryers are typically larger than the manifold dryers and are more sophisticated. Tray style freeze-dryers are used to dry a variety of materials. A tray freeze-dryer is used to produce the driest product for long-term storage. A tray freeze-dryer allows the product to be frozen in place and performs both primary (unbound water removal) and secondary (bound water removal) freeze-drying, thus producing the driest possible end-product. Tray freeze-dryers can dry products in bulk or in vials or other containers. When drying in vials, the freeze-dryer is supplied with a stoppering mechanism that allows a stopper to be pressed into place, sealing the vial before it is exposed to the atmosphere. This is used for long-term storage, such as vaccines.

Improved freeze-drying techniques are being developed to extend the range of products that can be freeze-dried, to improve the quality of the product, and to produce the product faster with less labor.

In popular culture[edit]

1986 movie SpaceCamp made freeze-dried ice cream a popular snack in the United States.

from wikipedia

Vacuum packing

Vacuum packing is a method of packaging that removes air from the package prior to sealing. This method involves (manually or automatically) placing items in a plastic film package, removing air from inside, and sealing the package.[1]Shrink film is sometimes used to have a tight fit to the contents. The intent of vacuum packing is usually to remove oxygen from the container to extend the shelf life of foods and, with flexible package forms, to reduce the volume of the contents and package.[2]

Vacuum packing reduces atmospheric oxygen, limiting the growth of aerobic bacteria or fungi, and preventing the evaporation of volatile components. It is also commonly used to store dry foods over a long period of time, such as cereals, nuts, cured meats, cheese, smoked fish, coffee, and potato chips (crisps). On a more short term basis, vacuum packing can also be used to store fresh foods, such as vegetables, meats, and liquids, because it inhibits bacterial growth.

Vacuum packing greatly reduces the bulk of non-food items. For example, clothing and bedding can be stored in bags evacuated with a domestic vacuum cleaner or a dedicated vacuum sealer. This technique is sometimes used to compact household waste, for example where a charge is made for each full bag collected.

Vacuum packaging products, using plastic bags, canisters, bottles, or mason jars, are available for home use.

For delicate food items which might be crushed by the vacuum packing process (such as potato chips), an alternative is to replace the interior gas with nitrogen. This has the same effect of inhibiting deterioration due to the removal of oxygen.

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External sealers[edit]

External vacuum sealers involve a bag being attached to the vacuum-sealing machine externally. The machine will remove the air and seal the bag, which is all done outside the machine. A heat sealer is often used to seal the pack.

Single Vacuum Chamber Machines[edit]

File:Vacuum Packaging Machine.webm

This video shows vacuum packaging of organic rice.

Tabletop Vacuum Packaging Machine

Single chamber sealers require the entire product to be placed within the machine. Like external sealers, a plastic bag is typically used for packaging. Once the product is placed in the machine, the lid is closed and air is removed. Then, there is a heat seal inside the chamber that will seal the bag, after sealing the bag the chamber is refilled with air by the automatic opening of a vent to the outside. This oncoming pressure squeezes all remaining air in the bag. The lid is then opened and the product removed. Chamber sealers are typically used for low-to-medium-volume packaging, and also have the capability to vacuum seal liquids.

Double Vacuum Chamber Machines[edit]

Double Chamber Vacuum Packaging Machine

Double chamber sealers require the entire product to be placed in a plastic bag within the machine. Once the product is placed in the machine on the seal bar, the lid is closed and air is removed. Then a seal bar inside the chamber seals the product in the bag, after sealing the bag the chamber is refilled with air by the automatic opening of a vent to the outside. This oncoming pressure squeezes all remaining air in the bag. The lid is then opened and the product removed. Double chamber sealers are typically used for medium-volume packaging, and also have the capability to vacuum seal liquids. The lid generally swings from one side to another, increasing production speed over a single chamber model. Double chamber vacuum packaging machines generally have either spring-weighted lids or fully automatic lids.

Double chamber vacuum packaging machines are commonly used for:

  • Fresh Meat
  • Processed Meat
  • Cheese (hard and soft)
  • Candy & Chocolate
  • Empty Cans (it’s a example of atmospheric pressure)

Automatic Belt Vacuum Chamber Machines[edit]

Automatic Belt Vacuum Chamber Machine. Automatic belt vacuum chamber machines offer vastly increased speed and automation and accommodate large products.

Automatic belt chamber sealers require the entire product to be placed in a plastic bag or flow wrapped pouch within the machine. The product travels on the conveyor belt, it is automatically positioned in the machine on the seal bar, the lid is closed and air is removed. Then a seal bar inside the chamber seals the product in the bag. After sealing the bag, the chamber is refilled with air by the automatic opening of a vent to the outside. This oncoming pressure squeezes all remaining air in the bag. The lid is then opened and the product removed. Automatic belt vacuum chamber machines are typically used for high-speed packaging of large items, and also have the capability to vacuum seal liquids. The lid generally travels straight up and down.

Automatic belt vacuum chamber packaging machines are commonly used for:

  • Fresh Meat (large portions)
  • Processed Meat
  • Large Sausage logs
  • Cheese (hard and soft)

Thermoforming (rollstock) Vacuum Packaging Machines[edit]

Thermoform packaging machines are used in larger production facilities for vacuum packaging products.

Vacuum Packaging in large production facilities can be done with thermoforming machines. These are Form-Fill-Seal style machines that form the package from rolls of packaging film (webbing). Products are loaded into the thermoformed pockets, the top web is laid and sealed under a vacuum, producing vacuum packaged products. Thermoforming can greatly increase packaging production speed. Thermoformed plastics can be customized for size, color, clarity, and shape to fit products perfectly, creating a consistent appearance. Some common uses for Thermoforming in vacuum packaging include:

  • Fresh & Marinated Meat
  • Sausage
  • Cheese
  • Candy / Chocolate
  • Grain
  • Grab-and-Go Snacks (beef jerky, snack sticks)
  • Pharmaceutical and Medical Products
  • Coins / Collectables

Shelf life[edit]

Depending on the product, the shelf life of vacuum packaged products can exceed normal bagged or wrapped packages. Beef can last up to six weeks refrigerated, and much longer when frozen.[citation needed]

High Barrier Shrink Vacuum Bags[edit]

The amount of shelf life enhanced by a vacuum bag is dependent on the structure in the material. A standard vacuum bag is composed of a PA/PE structure where PA is for puncture resistance and PE is for sealing. The high barrier category includes the usage of more layers focused on the prevention of oxygen permeability, and therefore shelf life protection. There are two materials used in high barrier structures, polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) and ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH). Shelf life indication can be effectively measured by how many cubic centimeters of oxygen can permeate through 1 square meter of material over a 24-hour period. A standard PA/PE bag allows on average 100 cubic centimeters, PVDC allows on average over 10, and EVOH on average 1 cubic centimeter. Multi-layer structures allow the ability to use strong oxygen-barrier materials for enhanced shelf life protection. The PremiumPack structure is a good example of EVOH based high barrier shrink material.

Preventing freezer burn[edit]

When foods are frozen without preparation, freezer burn can occur. It happens when the surface of the food is dehydrated, and this leads to a dried and leathery appearance. Freezer burn also ruins the flavor and texture of foods. Vacuum packing reduces freezer burn by preventing the food from exposure to the cold, dry air.

Sous-vide cooking[edit]

Vacuum packaging also allows for a special cooking method, sous-vide. Sous-vide, French for under vacuum, involves poaching food that is vacuum sealed in a plastic bag.

Food safety[edit]

In an oxygen-depleted environment, anaerobic bacteria can proliferate, potentially causing food-safety issues. Vacuum packing is often used in combination with other packaging and food processing techniques.

from wikipedia

Freezer burn

Freezer burn is a condition that occurs when frozen food has been damaged by dehydration and oxidation, due to air reaching the food.[1] It is generally caused by food not being securely wrapped in air-tight packaging.

Freezer burn appears as grayish-brown leathery spots on frozen food, and occurs when air reaches the food’s surface and dries the product. Color changes result from chemical changes in the food’s pigment. Freezer burn does not make the food unsafe; it merely causes dry spots in foods.[2] Provided that the freezer burns are removed before cooking, the food remains usable and edible.

Cause and effects[edit]

The condition is primarily caused by sublimation. Water evaporates at all temperatures, even from the surface of solid ice. If air adjacent to ice is cold enough and the air is dry enough, the ice does not melt and water molecules go directly from solid phase (ice) to gaseous phase (vapor) without going through a liquid phase. When the constantly vibrating water molecules in foods stored in a freezer migrate to the surface, crystals of ice outside of the solid food are formed, and some water molecules escape into the air by sublimation. The parts of meat which are deprived of moisture become dry and shrivelled, appearing “burnt”. In meats, air can cause fats to oxidize.

This process occurs even if the package has never been opened, due to the tendency for all molecules, especially water, to escape solids via vapour pressure. Fluctuations in temperature within a freezer also contribute to the onset of freezer burn because such fluctuations set up temperature gradients within the solid food and air in the freezer, which create additional impetus for water molecules to move from their original positions.

It is possible to slow freezer burn by filling plastic containers with water and leaving them open (leaving room for expansion) in the freezer to help maintain humidity. Proper packaging can also help delay freezer burn because small, air-tight packaging allows local homeostasis of humidity, and, to a lesser degree, temperature, although current available packaging cannot do this perfectly.

Meats and vegetables stored in a manual-defrost freezer will last longer than those stored in automatic-defrost freezers. This is because the temperature of a manual defrost freezer remains closer to −18 °C (0 °F) while the temperature of automatic defrost freezers fluctuates, and because automatic-defrost freezers have drier air, thus the rate of sublimation increases.

Food with freezer burn, though dried and wrinkled, is safe to eat. However, food afflicted with freezer burn may have an unpleasant flavour. In most cases, it is sufficient to remove the parts affected by freezer burn.

from wikipedia

Wine in health

Red wine and resveratrol: Good for your heart?

Red wine and something in red wine called resveratrol might be heart healthy. Find out the facts, and hype, regarding red wine and its impact on your heart.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

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Red wine, in moderation, has long been thought of as heart healthy. The alcohol and certain substances in red wine called antioxidants may help prevent coronary artery disease, the condition that leads to heart attacks.

Any links between red wine and fewer heart attacks aren’t completely understood. But part of the benefit might be that antioxidants may increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) and protect against cholesterol buildup.

While the news about red wine might sound great if you enjoy a glass of red wine with your evening meal, doctors are wary of encouraging anyone to start drinking alcohol, especially if you have a family history of alcohol abuse. Too much alcohol can have many harmful effects on your body.

Still, many doctors agree that something in red wine appears to help your heart. It’s possible that antioxidants, such as flavonoids or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits.

How is red wine heart healthy?

Red wine seems to have heart-healthy benefits. But it’s possible that red wine isn’t any better than beer, white wine or liquor for heart health. There’s still no clear evidence that red wine is better than other forms of alcohol when it comes to possible heart-healthy benefits.

Antioxidants in red wine called polyphenols may help protect the lining of blood vessels in your heart. A polyphenol called resveratrol is one substance in red wine that’s gotten attention.

Resveratrol in red wine

Resveratrol might be a key ingredient in red wine that helps prevent damage to blood vessels, reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) and prevents blood clots. Some research shows that resveratrol could be linked to a lower risk of inflammation and blood clotting, which can lead to heart disease. But other studies found no benefits from resveratrol in preventing heart disease.

More research is needed to determine if resveratrol lowers the risk of inflammation and blood clotting.

The resveratrol in red wine comes from the skin of grapes used to make wine. Because red wine is fermented with grape skins longer than is white wine, red wine contains more resveratrol.

Simply eating grapes, or drinking grape juice, might be one way to get resveratrol without drinking alcohol. Red and purple grape juices may have some of the same heart-healthy benefits of red wine.

Other foods that contain some resveratrol include peanuts, blueberries and cranberries. It’s not yet known how beneficial eating grapes or other foods might be compared with drinking red wine when it comes to promoting heart health. The amount of resveratrol in food and red wine can vary widely.

Resveratrol supplements also are available. Researchers haven’t found any harm in taking resveratrol supplements. But your body can’t absorb most of the resveratrol in the supplements.

How does alcohol help the heart?

Various studies have shown that moderate amounts of all types of alcohol benefit your heart, not just alcohol found in red wine. It’s thought that alcohol:

  • Raises HDL (healthy) cholesterol
  • Reduces the formation of blood clots
  • Helps prevent artery damage caused by high levels of LDL (harmful) cholesterol
  • May improve the function of the layer of cells that line your blood vessels (endothelium)

Drink in moderation — or not at all

Red wine’s potential heart-healthy benefits look promising. Those who drink moderate amounts of alcohol, including red wine, seem to have a lower risk of heart disease.

However, it’s important to understand that studies comparing moderate drinkers to non-drinkers might overestimate the benefits of moderate drinking because non-drinkers might already have health problems. More research is needed before we know whether red wine is better for your heart than are other forms of alcohol, such as beer or spirits.

Neither the American Heart Association nor the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommends that you start drinking alcohol just to prevent heart disease. Alcohol can be addictive and can cause or worsen other health problems.

Drinking too much alcohol increases your risk of:

  • Liver and pancreas diseases
  • Heart failure
  • High blood pressure
  • Certain types of cancer
  • Stroke
  • Accidents, violence and suicide
  • Weight gain and obesity

Avoid alcohol completely if you:

  • Are pregnant
  • Have a personal or strong family history of alcoholism
  • Have a liver or pancreas disease associated with alcohol consumption
  • Have heart failure or a weak heart
  • Take certain medications or a daily aspirin

If you have questions about the benefits and risks of alcohol, talk to your doctor about specific recommendations for you.

If you already drink red wine, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means:

  • Up to one drink a day for women of all ages.
  • Up to one drink a day for men older than age 65.
  • Up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger. The limit for men is higher because men generally weigh more and have more of an enzyme that metabolizes alcohol than women do.

A drink is defined as:

  • 12 ounces (355 milliliters, or mL) of beer
  • 5 ounces (148 mL) of wine
  • 1.5 ounces (44 mL) of 80-proof distilled spirits
 from mayo clinic

Water

Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth’s streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, that are connected by covalent bonds. Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity.

Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet’s crust water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation.[2][3] Only 2.5% of this water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth’s freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.[2] A greater quantity of water is found in the earth’s interior.[4]

Water on Earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Large amounts of water are also chemically combined or adsorbed in hydrated minerals.

Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.[5] There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and gross domestic product per capita.[6]However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability.[7] A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%.[8]

Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture.[9] Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities (such as oil and natural gas) and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers, lakes, and canals. Large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is a good solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances; as such it is widely used in industrial processes, and in cooking and washing. Water is also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, and diving.

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Chemical and physical properties

States

Water is a liquid at the temperatures and pressures that are most adequate for life. Specifically, at normal atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (0.98692 atm, 100 kPa, 14.5 psi), water is a liquid between the temperatures of 273.15 K (0 °C, 32 °F) and 373.15 K (100 °C, 212 °F). Increasing the pressure slightly lowers the melting point, which is about −5 °C at 600 atm, −22 °C at 2100 atm. This effect is relevant, for example, to ice skating, to the buried lakes of Antartica, and to the movement of glaciers. (At pressures higher than 2100 atm the melting point rapidly increases again, and ice takes several exotic forms that do not exist at lower pressures.)

Increasing the pressure has a more dramatic effect on the boiling point, that is about 374 °C at 220 atm. This effect is important in, among other things, deep-sea hydrothermal vents and geysers, pressure cooking, and steam engine design. At the top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.34 atm, water boils at 68 °C (154 °F).

At very low pressures (below about 0.006 atm), water cannot exist in the liquid state, and passes directly from solid to gas by sublimation—a phenomenon exploited in the freeze drying of food. At very high pressures (above 221 atm), the liquid and gas states are no longer distinguishable, a state called supercritical steam.

Water also differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes. The maximum density of water is 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 lb/cu ft), that occurs at 3.98 °C (39.16 °F), whereas the density of ice is 917 kg/m3(57.25 lb/cu ft).[10][11] Thus, water expands 9% in volume as it freezes, which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water.

At temperatures from 30 °C to 60 °C water has 2 liquid states.[12][13][14]

Taste and odor

Pure water is usually described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths,[15] and frogs are known to be able to smell it.[16] However, water from ordinary sources (including bottled mineral water) usually has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid.[17]

Color and appearance

The apparent color of natural bodies of water (and swimming pools) is often determined more by dissolved and suspended solids, or by reflection of the sky, than by water itself.

Light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum can traverse a couple meters of pure water (or ice) without significant absorption, so that it looks transparent and colorless.[18] Thus aquatic plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Water vapour is essentially invisible as a gas.

Through a thickness of 10 meters or more, however, the intrinsic color of water (or ice) is visibly turquoise (greenish blue), as its absorption spectrum has a sharp minimum at the corresponding color of light (1/227 m−1 at 418 nm). The color becomes increasingly stronger and darker with increasing thickness. (Practically no sunlight reaches the parts of the oceans below 1000 meters of depth.) Infrared and ultraviolet light, on the other hand, is strongly absorbed by water.

The refraction index of liquid water (1.333 at 20 °C) is much higher than that of air (1.0), similar to those of alkanes and ethanol, but lower than those of glycerol (1.473), benzene (1.501), carbon disulfide (1.627), and common types of glass (1.4 to 1.6). The refraction index of ice (1.31) is lower than that of liquid water.

Polarity and hydrogen bonding

Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water.

Capillary action of water compared to mercury.

Impact from a water drop causes an upward “rebound” jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.

Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms, it is a polar molecule, with an electrical dipole moment: the oxygen atom carries a slight negative charge, whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. Water is a good polar solvent, that dissoves many salts and hydrophilic organic molecules such as sugars and simple alcohols such as ethanol. Most acids dissolve in water to yield the corresponding anions. Many substances in living organisms, such as proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, are dissolved in water. Water also dissolves many gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide—the latter giving the fizz of carbonated beverages, sparkling wines and beers.

On the other hand, many organic substances (such as fats and oils and alkanes) are hydrophobic, that is, insoluble in water. Many inorganic subtances are insoluble too, including most metal oxides, sulfides, and silicates.

Because of its polarity, a molecule of water in the liquid or solid state can form up to four hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules. These bonds are the cause of water’s high surface tension[19] and capillary forces. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants, such as trees.[20]

The hydrogen bonds are also the reason why the melting and boiling points of water are much higher than those of other analogous compounds like hydrogen sulfide (H
2S
). They also explain its exceptionally high specific heat capacity (about 4.2 J/g/K), heat of fusion (about 333 J/g), heat of vaporization (2257 J/g), and thermal conductivity (between 0.561 and 0.679 W/m/K). These properties make water more effective at moderating Earth’s climate, by storing heat and transporting it between the oceans and the atmosphere.

Electrical conductivity and electrolysis

Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, which increases with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as common salt.

Liquid water can be split into the elements hydrogen and oxygen by passing an electric current through it—a process called electrolysis. The decomposition requires more energy input than the heat released by the inverse process (285.8 kJ/mol, or 15.9 MJ/kg).[21]

Mechanical properties

Liquid water can be assumed to be incompressible for most purposes: its compressibility ranges from 4.4 to 5.1×10−10 Pa−1 in ordinary conditions.[22] Even in oceans at 4 km depth, where the pressure is 400 atm, water suffers only a 1.8% decrease in volume.[23]

The viscosity of water is about 10−3 Pa·s or 0.01 poise at 20 °C, and the speed of sound in liquid water ranges between 1400 and 1540 m/s depending on temperature. Sound travels long distances in water with little attenuation, especially at low frequencies (roughly 0.03 dB/km for 1 kHz), a property that is exploited by cetaceans and humans for communication and environment sensing (sonar).[24]

Reactivity

Elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen such as lithium, sodium, calcium, potassium and caesium displace hydrogen from water, forming hydroxides and releasing hydrogen.

Distribution in nature

In the universe

Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the Universe.[25]

Much of the universe’s water is produced as a byproduct of star formation. The formation of stars is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas, the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas.[26]

On 22 July 2011 a report described the discovery of a gigantic cloud of water vapor containing “140 trillion times more water than all of Earth’s oceans combined” around a quasar located 12 billion light years from Earth. According to the researchers, the “discovery shows that water has been prevalent in the universe for nearly its entire existence”.[27][28]

Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy, the Milky Way.[citation needed] Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies, too, because its components, hydrogen and oxygen, are among the most abundant elements in the universe. Based on models of the formation and evolution of the Solar System and that of other star systems, most other planetary systems are likely to have similar ingredients.

Water vapor

Water is present as vapor in:

Liquid water

Turquoise water with a bit of sunlight

Liquid water is known to be present on Earth, covering 71% of its surface. Scientists believe liquid water is present in the Saturnian moons of Enceladus, as a 10-kilometre thick ocean approximately 30–40 kilometres below Enceladus’ south polar surface,[49][50] and Titan, as a subsurface layer, possibly mixed with ammonia.[51] Jupiter’s moon Europa has surface characteristics which suggest a subsurface liquid water ocean.[52] Liquid water may also exist on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede as a layer sandwiched between high pressure ice and rock.[53]

Currently, there are two planets known to have flowing liquid water on their surfaces: Earth and Mars.[54]

Water ice

Water is present as ice on:

  • Mars: under the regolith and at the poles
  • Earth-Moon system: mainly as ice sheets on Earth and in Lunar craters and volcanic rocks[55] NASA reported the detection of water molecules by NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper aboard the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in September 2009.[56]
  • Jupiter’s moons: Europa‘s surface and also that of Ganymede
  • Saturn: in the planet’s ring system[57] and on the surface and mantle of Titan and Enceladus
  • PlutoCharon system[57]
  • Comets and related (Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects).

And may also be present on:

Exotic forms

Water and other volatiles probably comprise much of the internal structures of Uranus and Neptune and the water in the deeper layers may be in the form of ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and deeper still as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float about freely within the oxygen lattice.[59]

Water and habitable zone

Further information: Water distribution on Earth

The existence of liquid water, and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms, on Earth are vital to the existence of life on Earth as we know it. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the solar system; if it were slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5%, or about 8 million kilometers), the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist.[60][61]

Earth’s gravity allows it to hold an atmosphere. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a temperature buffer (greenhouse effect) which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. If Earth were smaller, a thinner atmosphere would allow temperature extremes, thus preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars).

The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation), indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth’s temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis.

The state of water on a planet depends on ambient pressure, which is determined by the planet’s gravity. If a planet is sufficiently massive, the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures, because of the high pressure caused by gravity, as it was observed on exoplanets Gliese 436 b[62] and GJ 1214 b.[63]

On Earth

Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface; the oceans contain 96.5% of the Earth’s water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the Earth’s albedo.

Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth. The study of the distribution of water is hydrography. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, of glaciers is glaciology, of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology.

The collective mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet is called the hydrosphere. Earth’s approximate water volume (the total water supply of the world) is 1,338,000,000 km3 (321,000,000 mi3).[2]

Liquid water is found in bodies of water, such as an ocean, sea, lake, river, stream, canal, pond, or puddle. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid, liquid, and vapor states. It also exists as groundwater in aquifers.

Water is important in many geological processes. Groundwater is present in most rocks, and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting. Water in the mantle is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes at subduction zones. On the surface of the Earth, water is important in both chemical and physical weathering processes. Water, and to a lesser but still significant extent, ice, are also responsible for a large amount of sediment transport that occurs on the surface of the earth. Deposition of transported sediment forms many types of sedimentary rocks, which make up the geologic record of Earth history.

Water cycle

Main article: Water cycle

The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere, between the atmosphere, soil water, surface water, groundwater, and plants.

Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle consisting of following transfer processes:

  • evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air.
  • precipitation, from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean.
  • runoff from the land usually reaching the sea.

Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans, but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea, about 47 Tt per year. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute another 72 Tt per year. Precipitation, at a rate of 119 Tt per year over land, has several forms: most commonly rain, snow, and hail, with some contribution from fog and dew.[64] Dew is small drops of water that are condensed when a high density of water vapor meets a cool surface. Dew usually forms in the morning when the temperature is the lowest, just before sunrise and when the temperature of the earth’s surface starts to increase.[65] Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows.

Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. A mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters is a hydrological transport model. Some water is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. Through erosion, runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers. A flood occurs when an area of land, usually low-lying, is covered with water. It is when a river overflows its banks or flood comes from the sea. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. This occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation.

Fresh water storage

Bay of Fundy High Tide.jpgBay of Fundy Low Tide.jpg
The Bay of Fundy at high tide (left) and low tide (right)
Main article: Water resources

Some runoff water is trapped for periods of time, for example in lakes. At high altitude, during winter, and in the far north and south, snow collects in ice caps, snow pack and glaciers. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs, or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells. This water storage is important, since clean, fresh water is essential to human and other land-based life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply.

Sea water and tides

Main articles: Seawater and Tides

Sea water contains about 3.5% salt on average, plus smaller amounts of other substances. The physical properties of sea water differ from fresh water in some important respects. It freezes at a lower temperature (about −1.9 °C) and its density increases with decreasing temperature to the freezing point, instead of reaching maximum density at a temperature above freezing. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0.7% in the Baltic Sea to 4.0% in the Red Sea.

Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides.

Effects on life

An oasis is an isolated water source with vegetation in a desert.

Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. Water (at right), together with carbon dioxide (CO2), form oxygen and organic compounds (at left), which can be respired to water and (CO2).

From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body’s solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e.g. starches, triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.g. glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Without water, these particular metabolic processes could not exist.

Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun’s energy to split off water’s hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun’s energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration).

Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. An acid, a hydrogen ion (H+, that is, a proton) donor, can be neutralized by a base, a proton acceptor such as a hydroxide ion (OH) to form water. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7.

Aquatic life forms

Further information: Hydrobiology, Marine life, and Aquatic plant

Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef

Some marine diatoms – a key phytoplankton group

Earth surface waters are filled with life. The earliest life forms appeared in water; nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales. Some kinds of animals, such as amphibians, spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain.

Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways. Fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, whales, otters, and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus). However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water.

Effects on human civilization

Water fountain

Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia, the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. Rome was also founded on the banks of the Italian river Tiber. Large metropolises like Rotterdam, London, Montreal, Paris, New York City, Buenos Aires, Shanghai, Tokyo, Chicago, and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development.

Health and pollution

An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water

Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation, or by a range of other methods.

Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe water, or “safe for bathing”. Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water, and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light.

In the USA, non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater, which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again, and blackwater, which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable. Greywater composes 50–80% of residential wastewater generated by a household’s sanitation equipment (sinks, showers and kitchen runoff, but not toilets, which generate blackwater.) These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures.

This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places, and its availability is a major social and economic concern. Currently, about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit.[66] Even if this difficult goal is met, it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water and over a billion without access to adequate sanitation. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly; some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water. The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1.4 million child deaths from diarrhea each year.[67]

Water, however, is not a finite resource[citation needed][clarification needed], but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation in quantities many degrees of magnitude higher than human consumption. Therefore, it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply[citation needed], which is replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years)[citation needed], that is a non-renewable resource, and it is, rather, the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce[clarification needed], rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the earth. Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water (to leave enough for local human consumption)[further explanation needed], since the manufacturing process[clarification needed] uses around 10 to 100 times products’ masses in water[clarification needed].

In the developing world, 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams.[68] Some 50 countries, with roughly a third of the world’s population, also suffer from medium or high water stress, and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles.[69] The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes, but it also degrades groundwater resources.

Human uses

Further information: Water supply

Agriculture

File:Subsurface drip emission on loamy soil.ogv

Water distribution in subsurface drip irrigation

Irrigation of field crops

The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation, which is a key component to produce enough food. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries[70] and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (in the United States, 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation).[71]

Fifty years ago, the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. At this time, there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. People were not as wealthy as today, consumed fewer calories and ate less meat, so less water was needed to produce their food. They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. Today, the competition for the fixed amount of water resources is much more intense, giving rise to the concept of peak water.[72] This is because there are now nearly seven billion people on the planet, their consumption of water-thirsty meat and vegetables is rising, and there is increasing competition for water from industry, urbanisation and biofuel crops. In future, even more water will be needed to produce food because the Earth’s population is forecast to rise to 9 billion by 2050.[73]

An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in 2007 by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population.[74] It assessed the current availability of water for agriculture on a global scale and mapped out locations suffering from water scarcity. It found that a fifth of the world’s people, more than 1.2 billion, live in areas of physical water scarcity, where there is not enough water to meet all demands. A further 1.6 billion people live in areas experiencing economic water scarcity, where the lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity make it impossible for authorities to satisfy the demand for water. The report found that it would be possible to produce the food required in future, but that continuation of today’s food production and environmental trends would lead to crises in many parts of the world. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.[75]

As a scientific standard

On 7 April 1795, the gram was defined in France to be equal to “the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice”.[76] For practical purposes though, a metallic reference standard was required, one thousand times more massive, the kilogram. Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water. In spite of the fact that the decreed definition of the gram specified water at 0 °C—a highly reproducible temperature—the scientists chose to redefine the standard and to perform their measurements at the temperature of highest water density, which was measured at the time as 4 °C (39 °F).[77]

The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point of water, defined as exactly 273.16 K or 0.01 °C. The scale is an absolute temperature scale with the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale, which was originally defined according to the boiling point (set to 100 °C) and melting point (set to 0 °C) of water.

Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen-16, but there is also a small quantity of heavier isotopes such as hydrogen-2 (deuterium). The amount of deuterium oxides or heavy water is very small, but it still affects the properties of water. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less deuterium than seawater. Therefore, standard water is defined in the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water specification.

For drinking

Main article: Drinking water

A young girl drinking bottled water

Water availability: fraction of population using improved water sources by country

The human body contains from 55% to 78% water, depending on body size.[78] To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though most specialists agree that approximately 2 liters (6 to 7 glasses) of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.[79] Medical literature favors a lower consumption, typically 1 liter of water for an average male, excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather.[80]

For those who have healthy kidneys, it is rather difficult to drink too much water, but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication (hyperhydration), which can be fatal.[81][82] The popular claim that “a person should consume eight glasses of water per day” seems to have no real basis in science.[83] Studies have shown that extra water intake, especially up to 500 ml at mealtime was conducive to weight loss.[84][85][86][87][88][89] Adequate fluid intake is helpful in preventing constipation.[90]

Hazard symbol for non-potable water

An original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Research Council read: “An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods.”[91] The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended, based on the median total water intake from U.S. survey data (including food sources): 3.7 liters for men and 2.7 liters of water total for women, noting that water contained in food provided approximately 19 % of total water intake in the survey.[92]

Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. The Institute of Medicine (U.S.) recommends that, on average, men consume 3.0 liters and women 2.2 liters; pregnant women should increase intake to 2.4 liters (10 cups) and breastfeeding women should get 3 liters (12 cups), since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing.[93] Also noted is that normally, about 20% of water intake comes from food, while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; through urine and feces, through sweating, and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.

Humans require water with few impurities. Common impurities include metal salts and oxides, including copper, iron, calcium and lead,[94] and/or harmful bacteria, such as Vibrio. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes.[95]

The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia.[96]

Washing

The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water, suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene.

Transportation

Main article: Ship transport

The use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy.

Chemical uses

Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds. In organic reactions, it is not usually used as a reaction solvent, because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilic. Nevertheless, these properties are sometimes desirable. Also, acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently.

Heat exchange

Water and steam are a common fluid used for heat exchange, due to its availability and high heat capacity, both for cooling and heating. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea. It’s especially effective to transport heat through vaporization and condensation of water because of its large latent heat of vaporization. A disadvantage is that metals commonly found in industries such as steel and copper are oxidized faster by untreated water and steam. In almost all thermal power stations, water is used as the working fluid (used in a closed loop between boiler, steam turbine and condenser), and the coolant (used to exchange the waste heat to a water body or carry it away by evaporation in a cooling tower). In the United States, cooling power plants is the largest use of water.[71]

In the nuclear power industry, water can also be used as a neutron moderator. In most nuclear reactors, water is both a coolant and a moderator. This provides something of a passive safety measure, as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down. However other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling.

Fire extinction

Water is used for fighting wildfires.

Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. It is dangerous to use water on fires involving oils and organic solvents, because many organic materials float on water and the water tends to spread the burning liquid.

Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion, which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces, and of a hydrogen explosion, when substances which react with water, such as certain metals or hot carbon such as coal, charcoal, or coke graphite, decompose the water, producing water gas.

The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster, although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor’s own water cooling system. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme overheating of the core caused water to flash into steam. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium.

Recreation

Grand Anse Beach, St. George’s, Grenada, West Indies

Humans use water for many recreational purposes, as well as for exercising and for sports. Some of these include swimming, waterskiing, boating, surfing and diving. In addition, some sports, like ice hockey and ice skating, are played on ice. Lakesides, beaches and water parks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Many find the sound and appearance of flowing water to be calming, and fountains and other water features are popular decorations. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show, fun, and companionship. Humans also use water for snow sports i.e. skiing, sledding, snowmobiling or snowboarding, which require the water to be frozen.

Water industry

A water-carrier in India, 1882. In many places where running water is not available, water has to be transported by people.

A manual water pump in China

The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to households and industry. Water supply facilities include water wells, cisterns for rainwater harvesting, water supply networks, and water purification facilities, water tanks, water towers, water pipes including old aqueducts. Atmospheric water generators are in development.

Drinking water is often collected at springs, extracted from artificial borings (wells) in the ground, or pumped from lakes and rivers. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water, assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Other water sources include rainwater collection. Water may require purification for human consumption. This may involve removal of undissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material, while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. Distillation does all three functions. More advanced techniques exist, such as reverse osmosis. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates.

The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems, tanker delivery or as bottled water. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge.

Reducing usage by using drinking (potable) water only for human consumption is another option. In some cities such as Hong Kong, sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources.

Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water; to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water, it becomes a waste of the resource, regardless of benefits to the polluter. Like other types of pollution, this does not enter standard accounting of market costs, being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution, while the private firms’ profits are not redistributed to the local population, victims of this pollution. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable.

Municipal and industrial wastewater are typically treated at wastewater treatment plants. Mitigation of polluted surface runoff is addressed through a variety of prevention and treatment techniques. (See Surface runoff#Mitigation and treatment.)

Industrial applications

Water is used in power generation. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost, non-polluting, renewable energy source. The energy is supplied by the motion of water. Typically a dam is constructed on a river, creating an artificial lake behind it. Water flowing out of the lake is forced through turbines that turn generators.

Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Also, very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. It works very well, is relatively safe, and is not harmful to the environment. It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent overheating, or prevent saw blades from overheating.

Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines, such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger, in addition to its use as a chemical solvent. Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and discharged coolant water (thermal pollution). Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge.

Food processing

Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles

Boiling, steaming, and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state, steam. Water is also used for dishwashing. Water also plays many critical roles within the field of food science. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their products.[citation needed]

Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water. The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes, as well as air pressure, which is in turn is affected by altitude. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure that occurs at higher elevations. One mole of sucrose (sugar) per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0.51 °C (0.918 °F), and one mole of salt per kg raises the boiling point by 1.02 °C (1.836 °F); similarly, increasing the number of dissolved particles lowers water’s freezing point.[97]

Solutes in water also affect water activity that affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food.[98] Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water.[97] Solutes in water lower water activity—this is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity.[98] Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food, but also the preservation and shelf life of food.

Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing and may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product, as well as playing a role in sanitation. Water hardness is classified based on concentration of calcium carbonate the water contains. Water is classified as soft if it contains less than 100 mg/l (UK)[99] or less than 60 mg/l (USA).[100]

According to a report published by the Water Footprint organization in 2010, a single kilogram of beef requires 15 thousand litres of water; however, the authors also make clear that this is a global average and circumstantial factors determine the amount of water used in beef production.[101]

Medical use

Sterile water for injection

Water for injection is on the World Health Organization’s list of essential medicines.[102]

Law, politics, and crisis

Main articles: Water law, Water right, and Water crisis

An estimate of the share of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000

Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. For this reason, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. It causes health impacts and damage to biodiversity.

1.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990.[103] The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30% in 1970[104] to 71% in 1990, 79% in 2000 and 84% in 2004. This trend is projected to continue.[5] To halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water is one of the Millennium Development Goals. This goal is projected to be reached.

A 2006 United Nations report stated that “there is enough water for everyone”, but that access to it is hampered by mismanagement and corruption.[105] In addition, global initiatives to improve the efficiency of aid delivery, such as the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, have not been taken up by water sector donors as effectively as they have in education and health, potentially leaving multiple donors working on overlapping projects and recipient governments without empowerment to act.[106]

The authors of the 2007 Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture cited poor governance as one reason for some forms of water scarcity. Water governance is the set of formal and informal processes through which decisions related to water management are made. Good water governance is primarily about knowing what processes work best in a particular physical and socioeconomic context. Mistakes have sometimes been made by trying to apply ‘blueprints’ that work in the developed world to developing world locations and contexts. The Mekong river is one example; a review by the International Water Management Institute of policies in six countries that rely on the Mekong river for water found that thorough and transparent cost-benefit analyses and environmental impact assessments were rarely undertaken. They also discovered that Cambodia’s draft water law was much more complex than it needed to be.[107]

The UN World Water Development Report (WWDR, 2003) from the World Water Assessment Program indicates that, in the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world’s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. More than 2.2 million people died in 2000 from waterborne diseases (related to the consumption of contaminated water) or drought. In 2004, the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases; often this means lack of sewage disposal; see toilet.

Organizations concerned with water protection include the International Water Association (IWA), WaterAid, Water 1st, and the American Water Resources Association. The International Water Management Institute undertakes projects with the aim of using effective water management to reduce poverty. Water related conventions are United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Ramsar Convention. World Day for Water takes place on 22 March and World Ocean Day on 8 June.

In culture

Religion

Main article: Water and religion

Water is considered a purifier in most religions. Faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, the Rastafari movement, Shinto, Taoism, and Wicca. Immersion (or aspersion or affusion) of a person in water is a central sacrament of Christianity (where it is called baptism); it is also a part of the practice of other religions, including Islam (Ghusl), Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). In addition, a ritual bath in pure water is performed for the dead in many religions including Islam and Judaism. In Islam, the five daily prayers can be done in most cases after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu), unless water is unavailable (see Tayammum). In Shinto, water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e.g., in the ritual of misogi).

Philosophy

The Ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire, earth and air, and was regarded as the ylem, or basic substance of the universe. Thales, who was portrayed by Aristotle as an astronomer and an engineer, theorized that the earth, which is denser than water, emerged from the water. Thales, a monist, believed further that all things are made from water. Plato believed the shape of water is an icosahedron which accounts for why it is able to flow easily compared to the cube-shaped earth.[108]

In the theory of the four bodily humors, water was associated with phlegm, as being cold and moist. The classical element of water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy, along with earth, fire, wood, and metal.

Water is also taken as a role model in some parts of traditional and popular Asian philosophy. James Legge’s 1891 translation of the Dao De Jing states “The highest excellence is like (that of) water. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things, and in its occupying, without striving (to the contrary), the low place which all men dislike. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao” and “There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water, and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed.”[109]Guanzi in “Shui di” 水地 chapter further elaborates on symbolism of water, proclaiming that “man is water” and attributing natural qualities of the people of different Chinese regions to the character of local water resources.[110]

from wikipedia

Fooding

Fooding is a brand of a restaurant guide and gastronomic events that was founded in 2000. A contraction of the words “food” and “feeling”, the Fooding aims (in the words of Frédéric Mitterrand) to “defend a less-intimidating gastronomy for those who want to cook and nourish themselves in an unstuffy fashion”.[1] This neologism appeared for the first time in 1999 in a Nova Mag article by French journalist and food critic, Alexandre Cammas. It has since become the brand of an annual restaurant guide (in print, online, and smartphone application) and of often charitable international culinary events.

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The concept[edit]

According to Adam Gopnik in his New Yorker piece, the Fooding is to cuisine what the French New Wave was to French Cinema. The hidden goal was to Americanize French food without becoming American, just as the New Wave, back in the fifties and sixties, was about taking in Hollywood virtues without being Hollywoodized—taking in some of the energy and optimism and informality that the French still associate with American movies while reimagining them as something distinctly French”.[2]

The Fooding’s mission across its editorial activities and events is to liberate cuisine from the traditional codes and conventions that confine it, to give chefs the possibility of expressing themselves more fully, and to give contemporary eaters a true taste of the times. Through opening this “freer channel in the gastronomic universe”,[3] the Fooding emphasizes “the appetite for novelty and quality, rejection of boredom, love of fun, the ordinary, the sincere, and a yearning to eat with the times”.[4] Initially established by Cammas along with fellow journalist and food critic Emmanuel Rubin, the Fooding was supported by Jean-François Bizot (founder of Actuel and Radio Nova), as well as by Bruno Delport, the director of Novapress. Since 2004, it has been under the support of Marine Bidaud, associate director of the Fooding.

The guide[edit]

As an independent food guide, Fooding pays the bills for its reviewers, proving this by posting meal receipts on its website. It also refuses to give ad space to the restaurants it reviews in an attempt to remain financially separate. These are the essential conditions, says Cammas, for preserving freedom of expression and taste. In 2012, Cammas published an opinion piece in Le Monde, discussing the above conditions and defending the Michelin Guide’s ethics.[5]

Though written entirely in French, the Tips in English allow Anglophones to follow the guide as well. The 2013 Fooding Guide, launched this November, now includes a section on favorite restaurants around the world.

The paper guide[edit]

The first editions of the Fooding guide (2000–2004) were released as special editions of Nova Magazine: Guide Fooding : 1000 adresses pour saliver Paris (The Fooding Guide: 1000 restaurants to drool over in Paris). In 2003 and 2004, two Fooding & Style special issues were published as a supplement to Nova Magazine. In 2004, Nova Magazine stopped publication[6] and, as a result, its special editions. In November 2005, the Paris Fooding Guide relaunched as a supplement to Libération,[7] under the direction of Louis Dreyfus. In December 2005, the website launched with the online edition of the Paris Guide. The France Fooding Guide was published for the first time in 2006, again in partnership with Libération. As such, lefooding.com became a national guide. In 2006 and 2007, the Fooding Guide followed Louis Dreyfus to the Nouvel Observateur,[8] where he took up the post of general director. The 2008 France Guide then became a special edition of the Novel Observateur during summer 2007 with the subtitle 370 restaurants bien de chez nous – Guide vacances été 2007 (370 of our restaurants – Summer vacation guide 2007). The 2008 Paris Guide came out in September 2007 with the subtitle 400 restaurants pour embrasser le goût de l’époque (400 restaurants that embrace the taste of the times). In 2008, a few months after the death of Jean-François Bizot, the Fooding office moved in with the Inrockuptibles at the invitation of Frédéric Allary. In November 2008, for the first time in its history, the France Fooding Guide was published autonomously, under the exclusive direction of Alexandre Cammas and Marine Bidaud.

Le Fooding App[edit]

Launched at the end of October 2010, Le Fooding’s iPhone app was originally available for free until December 31, 2010. The application was downloaded 80,000 times in two months. Since January 1, 2011, the France Guide iPhone app has been available as a paid application (€3.59). It was described in GQ as “the application reserved for gentlemen”. In January 2013, the app was ranked 19th overall in top paid apps and 1st in the Food and Drink category.[9] In August 2012, Le Fooding Guide app for Android was released on Google Play (€3.59). In 2014, the app is available in English and in a Premium version, which also includes the hotel guide.[10]

Le Fooding Guide Writers[edit]

Along with Alexandre Cammas (founder) and Yves Nespoulous (editor-in-chief),[11] a large group of authors, journalists, food writers, writers, “bons vivants”, bloggers and multi-talented people regularly contribute to the different editions of The Guide. These contributors include several emblematic figures of gastronomy and lifestyle, including Julie Andrieu, Sébastien Demorand, Trish Deseine, Frédérick Ernestine Grasser-Hermé, Dominique Hutin, Emmanuel Rubin (cofounder of Fooding Week in 2000 and former partner in Le Fooding Bureau)[12] and Andrea Petrini. François-Régis Gaudry (journalist at L’Express, France Inter and Paris Première) said on his blog that he bylined his first gastronomy article for Le Fooding Guide in 2001.[13] Many other collaborators made their debut as professional food lovers with Le Fooding Guide: Marie Aline, Kéda Black, Danièle Gerkens, Jérome Lefort, Francois Lemarie, Elvira Masson, Julia Sammut (former associate at Le Fooding Bureau) and Hugo de St Phalle.

Controversies[edit]

Even though most foreign observers[14] believe that Le Fooding contributes to the reinvention of the French culinary and event scene on an international scale, this is not always the case in France. Jean-Luc Petitrenaud in VSD wrote that Le Fooding is “a ridiculous trend for a few Parisian journalists looking for fame” (VSD, Winter 2004). Supporters of more traditional cuisine count several French journalistic institutions among Le Fooding’s main detractors. A now-famous debate between the journalist Paul Wermus (anti-Fooding) and Alexandre Cammas during Paul Amar’s TV program, Revu et Corrigé, is regularly featured in TV blooper shows.[15]

On November 15, 2010, during the 10-year anniversary celebration of Le Fooding, then-current French Culture Minister Frédéric Mitterrand surprised the world of gastronomy by presenting Le Fooding Award to a Brittany chef. A couple of days later, journalists Colette Monsat and François Simon questioned him in the November 19, 2010 issue of le Figaro, saying “You preach the values of traditional (French) cuisine but at the same time are an avid supporter of Le Fooding, which you praised this week for its playful, less formal approach to gastronomy.” The Minister responded, “You can love Rembrandt and Basquiat. By appreciating Basquiat, one comes to have a taste for Rembrandt, and vice versa.[16]

from wikipedia

Gourmet

Gourmet (US: /ɡɔːrˈm/, UK: /ˈɡɔːm/) is a cultural ideal associated with the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, which is characterised by refined, even elaborate preparations and presentations of aesthetically balanced meals of several contrasting, often quite rich courses. The term and its associated practices are usually used positively to describe people of refined taste and passion.

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Person[edit]

The term gourmet can refer to a person with refined or discriminating taste who is knowledgeable in the craft and art of food and food preparation.[1] Gourmand carries additional connotations of one who simply enjoys food in great quantities. An epicure is similar to a gourmet, but the word may sometimes carry overtones of excessive refinement. A gourmet chef is a chef of particularly high caliber of cooking talent and skill.

Food[edit]

Gourmet may describe a class of restaurant, cuisine, meal or ingredient of high quality, of special presentation, or high sophistication. In the United States, a 1980s gourmet food movement evolved from a long-term division between elitist (or “gourmet”) tastes and a populist aversion to fancy foods.[2] Gourmet is an industry classification for high-quality premium foods in the United States. In the 2000s, there has been an accelerating increase in the American gourmet market, due in part to rising income, globalization of taste, and health and nutrition concerns.[3] Individual food and beverage categories, such as coffee, are often divided between a standard and a “gourmet” sub-market.[4]

Gourmet pursuits[edit]

Certain events such as wine tastings cater to people who consider themselves gourmets and foodies. Television programs (such as those on the Food Network) and publications such as Gourmet magazine often serve gourmets with food columns and features. Gourmet tourism is a niche industry catering to people who travel to food or wine tastings, restaurants, or food and wine production regions for leisure.[5][6]

Origin of term[edit]

The word gourmet is from the French term for a wine broker or taste-vin employed by a wine dealer.[7] Friand was formerly the reputable name for a connoisseur of delicious things that were not eaten primarily for nourishment: “A good gourmet”, wrote the conservative eighteenth-century Dictionnaire de Trévoux, employing this original sense, “must have le goût friand“, or a refined palate. The pleasure is also visual: “J’aime un ragoût, et je suis friand”, Giacomo Casanova declared, “mais s’il n’a pas bonne mine, il me semble mauvais”.[8] In the eighteenth century, gourmet and gourmand carried disreputable connotations of gluttony, which only gourmand has retained. Gourmet was rendered respectable by Monsieur Grimod de la Reynière, whose Almanach des Gourmands, essentially the first restaurant guide, appeared in Paris from 1803 to 1812. Previously, even the liberal Encyclopédie offered a moralising tone in its entry Gourmandise, defined as “refined and uncontrolled love of good food”, employing reproving illustrations that contrasted the frugal ancient Spartans and Romans of the Republic with the decadent luxury of Sybaris. The JesuitsDictionnaire de Trévoux took the Encyclopédistes to task, reminding its readers that gourmandise was one of the Seven Deadly Sins.[citation needed]

Related concepts[edit]

Foodie is often used by the media as a conversational synonym for gourmet, although it is a different concept (that of a food aficionado). The word foodie was coined synchronously by Gael Greene in the magazine New York and by Paul Levy and Ann Barr, co-authors of The Official Foodie Handbook (1984).

The term “gourmet” is often used in the context of the MFA Graphic Design department at the renowned design school, Rhode Island School of Design, in Providence, Rhode Island. Situated next door to the MFA Graphic Design’s graduate studio on 169 Weybosset Street, Serendipity Gourmet, formerly known as Gourmet Heaven, is widely known among its frequent customers as “Gourmetahaven,” named after the Dutch design studio Metahaven. For these graduate students, the word “gourmet” now carries a new meaning that brings to mind anything but the real definition of gourmet.

 

 

from wikipedia

national dish

A national dish is a culinary dish that is strongly associated with a particular country.[2] A dish can be considered a national dish for a variety of reasons:

National dishes are part of a nation’s identity and self-image.[3] During the age of European empire-building, nations would develop a national cuisine to distinguish themselves from their rivals.[4]

According to Zilkia Janer, a lecturer on Latin American culture at Hofstra University, it is impossible to choose a single national dish, even unofficially, for countries such as Mexico or India because of their diverse ethnic populations and cultures.[3] The cuisine of such countries simply cannot be represented by any single national dish. Furthermore, because national dishes are so interwoven into a nation’s sense of identity, strong emotions and conflicts can arise when trying to choose a country’s national dish.

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Latin American dishes[edit]

In Latin America, dishes may be claimed or designated as a “plato nacional“, although in many cases, recipes transcend national borders with only minor variations.[citation needed] Both Peru and Ecuador claim ceviche as their national dish. Stews of meat, plantains, and root vegetables are the platos nacionales of several countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean: Colombian ajiaco, as well as the sancocho of the Dominican Republic, Colombia, and Panama, are examples of platos nacionales. Janer (2008) observes that this sharing of the same plato nacional by different countries calls into question the idea that every country has a unique national dish that is special to that country; she states that cuisine does not respect national and geopolitical borders.[3]

The identification of Latin American national dishes is stronger among expatriate communities in North America.[3] In Latin American countries, the plato nacional is usually part of the cuisine of rural and peasant communities, and not necessarily part of the everyday cuisine of city dwellers. In expatriate communities, the dish is strongly reclaimed in order to retain the sense of national identity and ties to one’s homeland, and is proudly served in homes and restaurants. By this show of national identity, the community can resist social pressures that push for homogenization of many ethnically and culturally diverse communities into a single all-encompassing group identity, such as Latino or Hispanic American.[3]

By country[edit]

This is not a definitive list of national dishes, but rather a list of some foods that have been suggested to be national dishes.

Drink[edit]

National liquors[edit]

A national liquor is an alcoholic drink considered a standard and respected adult beverage in a given country. While the status of such drinks may be informal, there is usually a general consensus in a given country that a specific drink is the national beverage or “most popular liquor”.[citation needed]

from wikipedia

Traditional food

Traditional food refers to foods and dishes that are passed through generations[1] and also refers to foods consumed over the long-term duration of civilization that have been passed through generations.[2]Traditional foods and dishes are traditional in nature, and may have a historic precedent in a national dish, regional cuisine[1] or local cuisine. Traditional foods and beverages may be produced as homemade, by restaurants and small manufacturers, and by large food processing plant facilities.[3]

Some traditional foods have geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union designations per European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties: Protected designation of origin (PDO), Protected geographical indication (PGI) and Traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG). These standards serve to promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.[4]

This article also includes information about traditional beverages.

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By continent[edit]

Africa[edit]

Freshly harvested Bambara groundnuts

Europe[edit]

Traditional food products have been described as playing “an important part of European culture, identity, and heritage”.[5]

South America[edit]

  • Humita – a traditional food in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru

By country[edit]

Canada[edit]

Acadia[edit]

China[edit]

Eating spring pancakes on the day of Lichun in a restaurant

Costa Rica[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Cyprus[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

England[edit]

Faroe Islands[edit]

Faroese puffins prepared for the kitchen in Dímun

France[edit]

Germany[edit]

Guatemala[edit]

  • Fiambre is a traditional Guatemalan dish that is prepared and eaten yearly to celebrate the Day of the Dead (Día de los Muertos) and the All Saints Day (Día de Todos los Santos).

Iceland[edit]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Tumpeng is an Indonesian national dish

Iran[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

By designation of origin[edit]

Piedmont[edit]

  • Panna cotta – The northern Italian Region of Piedmont includes panna cotta in its 2001 list of traditional food products of the region.[19] Panna cotta is not mentioned in Italian cookbooks before the 1960s,[20][21] yet it is often cited as a traditional dessert in Piedmont.

Japan[edit]

  • Mochi – eaten year-round in Japan, mochi is a traditional food for the Japanese New Year and is commonly sold and eaten during that time

Jordan[edit]

Traditional beverages in Jordan include sous (also referred to as ‘irqsus), a drink prepared using the dried root of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice), tamr hindi, a drink prepared from an infusion of the dried pulp of Tamarindus indica (tamarind), and laban (labneh), a drink prepared with yogurt and water.[3] A significant amount of labneh in Jordan and nearby countries continues to be prepared using the traditional method of “straining set yogurt in cloth bags”.[3]

Korea[edit]

Maldives[edit]

Two pieces (ari) of industrially-produced Maldive fish

Malta[edit]

Mexico[edit]

A tamale

Nepal[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Scotland[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Slovakia[edit]

Spain[edit]

Swaziland[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

Tanzania[edit]

Thailand[edit]

Uganda[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Southern United States[edit]

Vanuatu[edit]

Yemen[edit]

By region[edit]

Arab states of the Persian Gulf[edit]

Commonwealth Caribbean[edit]

Eastern Mediterranean[edit]

Traditional foods of the Eastern Mediterranean region include falafel, fuul, halawa, hummus, kanafeh, labaneh, medammis and tahini.[3] among others. The most popular traditional foods in the region are those prepared from legumes, specifically, falafel, fuul, hummus and medammis.[3]

European Union[edit]

Scandinavia[edit]

Southern Africa[edit]

from wikipedia

Specialty foods

Specialty foods are foods that are typically considered as “unique and high-value food items made in small quantities from high-quality ingredients”.[1] Consumers typically pay higher prices for specialty foods, and may perceive them as having various benefits[1]compared to non-specialty foods. Compared to staple foods, specialty foods may have higher prices due to more expensive ingredients and labor.[2] Some food stores specialize in or predominantly purvey specialty foods.[3][4] Several organizations exist that promote specialty foods and its purveyors.

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Etymology[edit]

The term “specialty foods” does not have a standard definition.[1] Food processors, regulators and consumers may be confused by the term due to its potential ambiguity.[1]

Specialty foods[edit]

Caviar has been described as a specialty food

Foods that have been described as specialty foods include:

Some specialty foods may be ethnic specialties.[22]

Foods that have been described as specialty foods as per not precisely corresponding into other food categories include:

Umeboshi being dried in the sun

By country[edit]

China[edit]

In China, specialty foods have been described as having “important roles in the food culture…”[24] Some Chinese recipes may be footnoted with a statement that ingredients may only be available in specialty food stores and Chinese markets.[25]

United States[edit]

In the United States, specialty foods and their purveyors are regulated by both federal and state agencies.[26]

The Specialty Food Association’s annual “State of the Specialty Food Industry 2014” report stated that in 2013 in the U.S., specialty foods and beverages sales totaled $88.3 billion, accounted for an increase of 18.4% since 2011, and was a record high for the fourth consecutive year.[27][28] The report also stated that around 80% of specialty food sales occur at the retail level, and that seven out of ten specialty food retailers reported that the word “local” had the most importance as a product claim.[27]

Bean-to-bar chocolate manufacturers[edit]

As of March 2015 in the United States, the number of bean-to-bar chocolate manufacturers (companies that process cocoa beans into a product in-house, rather than melting chocolate from another manufacturer) had increased to at least 60.[29] The Fine Chocolate Industry Association stated that this represented “a tenfold increase in the past decade that’s outpacing growth in Europe”.[29][30]

California[edit]

In 2012 in the United States, the specialty foods market sector was experiencing significant growth, with its annual growth rate at 8–10%.[1] In 2010, specialty foods comprised 13.1% of total retail food sales and totaled $55.9 billion in sales.[1]

In 2010 in Oakland, California it was reported that abandoned industrial spaces previously occupied by large food producers were being inhabited by small specialty food companies.[31]

In 1998, the U.S. state of California had the second-highest amount of specialty and gourmet foods of all U.S. states.[32] This has been attributed as possible due a diverse variety of unique fruits and vegetables that can be grown in Southern California.[32] Another possibility for the high quantity and diversity of specialty foods in California is that food innovations often occur in the state, as has occurred in other sectors such as health food and organic produce.[32]

In 1991, the Los Angeles Times reported that city officials in Monterey Park, Los Angeles County, California suspected that significant numbers of non-residents were visiting the city to shop at Asian markets there to obtain specialty foods.[33]

Vermont[edit]

In terms of food-place association perceptions, Vermont has been described as being associated with “homemade-style specialty items”, along with maple syrup.[32]

Specialty food companies and stores[edit]

Some companies, grocery stores and food stores specialize in or predominantly purvey specialty foods. Some of these companies include:

Specialty food organizations[edit]

United States[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

  • Connecticut Food Association – has a specialty food division [39]
  • Connecticut Specialty Food Association [40]

Massachusetts[edit]

  • Massachusetts Specialty Foods Association [41]

Michigan[edit]

  • Traverse Bay Specialty Foods [42]

New York[edit]

The National Association for the Specialty Food Trade, also known as the Specialty Food Association is a non-profit trade association founded in 1952 in New York that has over 3,000 members.[43] The organization also oversees its Specialty Food Foundation, a foundation that “works to reduce hunger and increase food recovery efforts via grantmaking, education and industry events”.[44]

In New York’s Finger Lakes region, the Worker Ownership Resource Center established the Specialty Food Network.[45] The network was established to “help clients start or expand small food businesses” and to promote the businesses and products of its members.[45] Establishment of the network was enabled in part with a grant from the John Merck Fund.[45] In 1998, the network had 46 members.[45]

South Carolina[edit]

  • South Carolina Specialty Food Association [46]

Vermont[edit]

  • Vermont Specialty Food Association [47]

from wikipedia