Category Archives: housewere

Pillows

A quick Google search for “pillows” will return almost a billion page results and over 30,000 shopping results. Pillows are a universal part of our lives and there are more options than there have ever been, each with its own claim of support and comfort. While the idea of pillows being a soft place to rest your head is not a new concept, it certainly wasn’t its original purpose.

click the link below to buy any of your home products from a needle to a sowing machine from a spoon to refrigerator from a funnel to a wine cooler  at the best prices

Homes Products Store

So far as we know, the earliest pillows date back over 9,000 years to Mesopotamia, or modern day Iraq. Formed from stone, the top was carved in a half-moon shape to support the neck. The idea obviously wasn’t comfort, at least not immediate comfort. The basic function of the pillow was to keep the head off the ground and prevent insects from crawling into mouths, noses, and ears. Ancient Egyptians and Chinese also used similar pillows, though each culture had its own reasons for them.

The Egyptians believed that the head was an important spiritual and life center for the body, so pillows and headrests were created to hold and protect it. Most of these pillows, while similar to the Mesopotamians in their curved top, were carved out of wood and reserved mainly for wealthy individuals.

chinese-porcelain-pillow
Chinese porcelain pillow, Song Dynasty (960–1279)

The Chinese on the other hand, created ornately decorated pillows from many materials including wood, stone, bamboo, and even porcelain, bronze, and jade. Though they had the knowledge and ability to create soft pillows, they believed that such pillows stole energy and vitality from the body while one slept and were ineffective at keeping demons away.

Ancient Greeks and Romans used pillows more similar to those we know today–cloth filled with materials such as feathers or straw. By the Middle Ages in Europe, however, pillows had fallen out of favor with many. Many men viewed pillows as a sign of weakness, and their use was primarily limited to pregnant women.

While they did make a resurgence after the Middle Ages, pillows did not become nearly as universal as they are today until the industrial revolution. The improvements in technology made mass production of textiles possible, meaning everyone could sleep with a pillow at night and could even afford decorative pillows for chairs and couches, something that earlier would have been seen as a symbol of high status.

pillow-fight
Pillows were created for children to use as weapons.

For such a simple idea, it’s amazing to see that the pillow is still changing – new materials and shapes arise constantly, claiming to provide more support and a better night’s sleep than your old pillow. Though few people likely base their purchases on how well a pillows protects their ears from insects anymore, the pillow has been an important piece of human culture throughout much of our history and continues to be today.

 

from

 

Linen

Linen /ˈlɪnn/ is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very absorbent and garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather.

Many products are made of linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimming, bath, beach, body and wash towels), napkins, bed linens, tablecloths, runners, chair covers, and men’s and women’s wear.

click the link below to buy any of your home products from a needle to a sowing machine from a spoon to refrigerator from a funnel to a wine cooler  at the best prices

Homes Products Store

The word linen is of West Germanic origin and cognate to the Latin name for the flax plant, linum, and the earlier Greek λινόν (linón). This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line, from the use of a linen (flax) thread to determine a straight line.

Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton, hemp and other non-flax fibers, are also loosely referred to as “linen”. Such fabrics generally also have their own specific names, for example fine cotton yarn in a linen-style weave is called Madapolam.

The collective term “linens” is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of linen. In the past, “linens” also referred to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises, waist-shirts, lingerie (a word also cognate with linen), and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen. The inner layer of fine composite cloth garments (as for example jackets) was traditionally made of linen, hence the word lining.[1]

Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics dating to about 8000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36,000 BP.[2][3]

Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand-spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared to modern linen.[4] In 1923 the German city Bielefeld issued banknotes printed on linen.[5] Today, linen is usually an expensive textile produced in relatively small quantities. It has a long “staple” (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The word linen is derived from the Latin for the flax plant, which is linum, and the earlier Greek λίνον (linon). This word history has given rise to a number of other terms:

  • Line, derived from the use of a linen thread to determine a straight line;
  • Lining, because linen was often used to create an inner layer for wool and leather clothing
  • Lingerie, via French, originally denotes underwear made of linen
  • Linseed oil, an oil derived from flax seed
  • Linoleum, a floor covering made from linseed oil and other materials.

History[edit]

The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Georgia dated to thirty-six thousand years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date.[2][3]

In ancient Mesopotamia, flax was domesticated and linen was first produced. It was used mainly by the wealthier class of the society, including priests. The Sumerian poem of the courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi (Tammuz), translated by Samuel Noah Kramer and Diane Wolkstein and published in 1983, mentions flax and linen. It opens with briefly listing the steps of preparing linen from flax, in a form of questions and answers between Inanna and her brother Utu.

In ancient Egypt, linen was used for mummification and for burial shrouds. It was also worn as clothing on a daily basis; white linen was worn because of the extreme heat. The use of linen for priestly vestments was not confined to the Israelites; Plutarch wrote that the priests of Isis also wore linen because of its purity.

Linen fabric has been used for table coverings, bed coverings and clothing for centuries. The significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread, but also because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention. In addition flax thread is not elastic, and therefore it is difficult to weave without breaking threads. Thus linen is considerably more expensive to manufacture than cotton.

There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. The Living Linen Project was set up in 1995 as an oral archive of the knowledge of the Irish linen industry, which was at that time still available within a nucleus of people who formerly worked in the industry in Ulster.

In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres in order to raise people’s awareness of linen and other natural fibers.

Antiquity[edit]

When the tomb of the Pharaoh Ramses II, who died in 1213 BC, was discovered in 1881, the linen wrappings were in a state of perfect preservation after more than 3000 years.[citation needed]

In the Belfast Library Template:Which one? there is the mummy of “Kaboolie,’ the daughter of a priest of Ammon, who died 2,500 years ago.[citation needed] The linen on this mummy is also in a perfect state of preservation.[citation needed] When the tomb of Tutankhamen was opened, the linen curtains were found to be intact.[citation needed]

Earliest linen industry[edit]

Diocletian‘s 4th century maximum prices edict showing prices for 3 grades of linen across the Roman Empire

The earliest records of an established linen industry are 4,000 years old, from Egypt. The earliest written documentation of a linen industry comes from the Linear B tablets of Pylos, Greece, where linen is depicted as an ideogram and also written as “li-no” (Greek: λίνον, linon), and the female linen workers are cataloged as “li-ne-ya” (λίνεια, lineia).[7][8]

The Phoenicians, who, with their merchant fleet, opened up new channels of commerce to the peoples of the Mediterranean, and developed the tin mines of Cornwall, introduced flax growing and the making of linen into Ireland before the common era. It is not until the twelfth century that we can find records of a definite attempt to systematize flax production.

When the Edict of Nantes was revoked, in 1685, many of the Huguenots who fled France settled in the British Isles, and amongst them was Louis Crommelin, who was born and brought up as a weaver of fine linen, in the town of Cambrai. He fled to Ulster, and eventually settled down in the small town of Lisburn, about ten miles from Belfast. Belfast itself is perhaps the most famous linen producing center throughout history; during the Victorian era the majority of the world’s linen was produced in the city which gained it the name Linenopolis.

Although the linen industry was already established in Ulster, Louis Crommelin found scope for improvement in weaving, and his efforts were so successful that he was appointed by the Government to develop the industry over a much wider range than the small confines of Lisburn and its surroundings. The direct result of his good work was the establishment, under statute, of the Board of Trustees of the Linen Manufacturers of Ireland in the year 1711. Several grades were produced from the coarsest lockram to the finest sasheen.

Religion[edit]

In Judaism, the only law concerning which fabrics may be interwoven together in clothing concerns the mixture of linen and wool, called shaatnez; it is restricted in Deuteronomy 22:11 “Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together” and Leviticus 19:19, “‘…neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.'” There is no explanation for this in the Torah itself and is categorized as a type of law known as chukim, a statute beyond man’s ability to comprehend.[9] Josephus suggested that the reason for the prohibition was to keep the laity from wearing the official garb of the priests,[10][full citation needed] while Maimonides thought that the reason was because heathen priests wore such mixed garments.[11][full citation needed] Others explain that it is because God often forbids mixtures of disparate kinds, not designed by God to be compatible in a certain way, with mixing animal and vegetable fibers being similar to having two different types of plowing animals yoked together. And that such commands serve both a practical as well as allegorical purpose, perhaps here preventing a priestly garment that would cause discomfort (or excessive sweat) in a hot climate.[12][full citation needed] Linen is also mentioned in the Bible in Proverbs 31, a passage describing a noble wife. Proverbs 31:22 says, “She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple.” Fine white linen is also worn by angels in the Bible.[citation needed]

Flax fiber[edit]

Main article: Flax

Description[edit]

Linen is a bast fiber. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12-16 micrometers in diameter. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics. Flax fibers can usually be identified by their “nodes” which add to the flexibility and texture of the fabric.

The cross-section of the linen fiber is made up of irregular polygonal shapes which contribute to the coarse texture of the fabric.[13]

Properties[edit]

Linen fabric feels cool to the touch, a phenomenon which indicates its higher conductivity (the same principle that makes metals feel “cold” to touch). It is smooth, making the finished fabric lint-free, and gets softer the more it is washed. However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds will tend to break the linen threads. This wear can show up in collars, hems, and any area that is iron creased during laundering. Linen has poor elasticity and does not spring back readily, explaining why it wrinkles so easily.

Linen fabrics have a high natural luster; their natural color ranges between shades of ivory, ecru, tan, or grey. Pure white linen is created by heavy bleaching. Linen fabric typically varies somewhat in thickness and is crisp and textured, but it can in some cases feel stiff and rough, and in other cases feel soft and smooth. When properly prepared, linen fabric has the ability to absorb and lose water rapidly. Linen can absorb a fair amount of moisture without feeling unpleasantly damp to the skin, unlike cotton[citation needed].

Linen is a very durable, strong fabric, and one of the few that are stronger wet than dry. The fibers do not stretch, and are resistant to damage from abrasion. However, because linen fibers have a very low elasticity, the fabric eventually breaks if it is folded and ironed at the same place repeatedly over time.

Mildew, perspiration, and bleach can also damage the fabric, but it is resistant to moths and carpet beetles. Linen is relatively easy to take care of, since it resists dirt and stains, has no lint or pilling tendency, and can be dry-cleaned, machine-washed or steamed. It can withstand high temperatures, and has only moderate initial shrinkage.[13]

Linen should not be dried too much by tumble drying, and it is much easier to iron when damp. Linen wrinkles very easily, and thus some more formal garments require ironing often, in order to maintain perfect smoothness. Nevertheless, the tendency to wrinkle is often considered part of linen’s particular “charm”, and many modern linen garments are designed to be air-dried on a good clothes hanger and worn without the necessity of ironing.

A characteristic often associated with linen yarn is the presence of “slubs”, or small knots which occur randomly along its length. In the past, slubs were traditionally considered to be defects, and were associated with low quality linen. However, in the case of many present-day linen fabrics, particularly in the decorative furnishing industry, slubs are considered as part of the aesthetic appeal of an expensive natural product. In addition, slubs do not compromise the integrity of the fabric, and therefore they are not viewed as a defect. However, the very finest linen has very consistent diameter threads, with no slubs at all.

Measure[edit]

The standard measure of bulk linen yarn is the lea, which is the number of yards in a pound of linen divided by 300. For example, a yarn having a size of 1 lea will give 300 yards per pound. The fine yarns used in handkerchiefs, etc. might be 40 lea, and give 40×300 = 12,000 yards per pound. This is a specific length therefore an indirect measurement of the fineness of the linen, i.e., the number of length units per unit mass. The symbol is NeL.(3) The metric unit, Nm, is more commonly used in continental Europe. This is the number of 1,000 m lengths per kilogram. In China, the English Cotton system unit, NeC, is common. This is the number of 840 yard lengths in a pound.

Production method[edit]

Details of the flax plant, from which linen fibers are derived

Mechanical baling of flax in Belgium. On the left side, cut flax is waiting to be baled.

The quality of the finished linen product is often dependent upon growing conditions and harvesting techniques. To generate the longest possible fibers, flax is either hand-harvested by pulling up the entire plant or stalks are cut very close to the root. After harvesting, the plants are dried, and the seeds are removed through a mechanized process called “rippling” (threshing) and winnowing.

The fibers must then be loosened from the stalk. This is achieved through retting. This is a process which uses bacteria to decompose the pectin that binds the fibers together. Natural retting methods take place in tanks and pools, or directly in the fields. There are also chemical retting methods; these are faster, but are typically more harmful to the environment and to the fibers themselves.

After retting, the stalks are ready for scutching, which takes place between August and December. Scutching removes the woody portion of the stalks by crushing them between two metal rollers, so that the parts of the stalk can be separated. The fibers are removed and the other parts such as linseed, shive, and tow are set aside for other uses. Next the fibers are heckled: the short fibers are separated with heckling combs by ‘combing’ them away, to leave behind only the long, soft flax fibers.

After the fibers have been separated and processed, they are typically spun into yarns and woven or knit into linen textiles. These textiles can then be bleached, dyed, printed on, or finished with a number of treatments or coatings.[13]

An alternate production method is known as “cottonizing” which is quicker and requires less equipment. The flax stalks are processed using traditional cotton machinery; however, the finished fibers often lose the characteristic linen look.

Producers[edit]

Flax is grown in many parts of the world, but top quality flax is primarily grown in Western European countries and Ukraine. In very recent years bulk linen production has moved to Eastern Europe and China, but high quality fabrics are still confined to niche producers in Ireland, Italy and Belgium, and also in countries including Poland, Austria, France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Britain and Kochi in India. High quality linen fabrics are now produced in the United States for the upholstery market[citation needed].

Uses[edit]

Bielefeld Germany Linen Notgeld issued by Stadt-Sparkasse on 8 November 1923

Over the past 30 years the end use for linen has changed dramatically. Approximately 70% of linen production in the 1990s was for apparel textiles, whereas in the 1970s only about 5% was used for fashion fabrics.

Linen uses range from bed and bath fabrics (tablecloths, bath towels, dish towels, bed sheets, etc.), home and commercial furnishing items (wallpaper/wall coverings, upholstery, window treatments, etc.), apparel items (suits, dresses, skirts, shirts, etc.), to industrial products (luggage, canvases, sewing thread, etc.).[6] It was once the preferred yarn for handsewing the uppers of moccasin-style shoes (loafers), but its use has been replaced by synthetics.

A linen handkerchief, pressed and folded to display the corners, was a standard decoration of a well-dressed man’s suit during most of the first part of the 20th century.

Currently researchers are working on a cotton/flax blend to create new yarns which will improve the feel of denim during hot and humid weather.[14][full citation needed]

Linen fabric is one of the preferred traditional supports for oil painting. In the United States cotton is popularly used instead as linen is many times more expensive there, restricting its use to professional painters. In Europe however, linen is usually the only fabric support available in art shops; in the UK both are freely available with cotton being cheaper. Linen is preferred to cotton for its strength, durability and archival integrity.

Linen is also used extensively by artisan bakers. Known as a couche, the flax cloth is used to hold the dough into shape while in the final rise, just before baking. The couche is heavily dusted with flour which is rubbed into the pores of the fabric. Then the shaped dough is placed on the couche. The floured couche makes a “non stick” surface to hold the dough. Then ridges are formed in the couche to keep the dough from spreading.

In the past, linen was also used for books (the only surviving example of which is the Liber Linteus). Due to its strength, in the Middle Ages linen was used for shields and gambeson (among other roles such as use for a bowstring), much as in classical antiquity it was used to make a type of body armour, referred to as a linothorax. Also because of its strength when wet, Irish linen is a very popular wrap of pool/billiard cues, due to its absorption of sweat from hands. Paper made of linen can be very strong and crisp, which is why the United States and many other countries print their currency on paper that is made from 25% linen and 75% cotton.

from wikipedia

pillow

A pillow is used to sleep on and support the head/neck or other parts of the body while sleeping, lying down or sitting. In addition, pillows have decorative uses and are used on beds, couches or chairs; these are also referred to as cushions.[1][2]

In contemporary western culture pillows consist of a plain or patterned fabric envelope (pillowcase) which contains a soft stuffing, which may range from down feathers to synthetic foam. In other cultures, pillows have been made of wood or stone. Bed pillows are typically covered with a cloth pillowcase. Pillows used in a living room typically have a sturdy cloth cover.

There are also throw pillows[3] (also called toss pillows or pillow shams in different worldwide dialects of English[citation needed]), which are pillows that are mainly decorative and not designed for support or comfort. A cushion[3] is a soft bag filled with air or padding such as hollow fiber, feathers, foam or rubber. In the United Kingdom, pillows used on chairs and sofas are called cushions or throw cushions, with the word pillow used only for pillows on a bed. In the UK, cushions are usually square, while bed pillows are oblong.[4]

click the link below to buy any of your home products from a needle to a sowing machine from a spoon to refrigerator from a funnel to a wine cooler  at the best prices

Homes Products Store

Etymology

The word pillow comes from Middle English pilwe, from Old English pyle (akin to Old High German pfuliwi) and from Latin pulvinus. The first known use of the word pillow was before the 12th century.[5]

History

Overview

The first people to use pillows were those who lived in early civilizations of Mesopotamia around 7,000 BC.[6] During this time, only the wealthy used pillows.[6] The number of pillows symbolized status so the more pillows one owned the more affluence he or she held.[6] Pillows have long been produced around the world in order to help solve the reoccurring problem of neck, back, and shoulder pain while sleeping.[7] The pillow was also used to keep bugs and insects out of people’s hair, mouth, nose, and ears while sleeping.[7]

In ancient Egypt

Pillow use has been associated with the mummies and tombs of ancient Egypt dating back to 2055–1985 B.C.[8] Ancient Egyptian pillows were wooden or stone headrests.[8] These pillows were mostly used by placing them under the heads of the deceased because the head of a human was considered to be the essence of life and sacred.[8] The ancient Egyptians used these wooden or stone pillows in order to provide support to a corpse’s head, uphold body vigor, keep blood circulating, and keep demons away.[8]

In ancient Europe

The Romans and Greeks of ancient Europe mastered the creation of the softer pillow. These pillows were stuffed with reeds, feathers, and straw in order to make them softer and more comfortable.[9] Only upper-class people typically owned these softer pillows, however all classes of people were allowed to use some type of pillow while sleeping in order to give them support.[9] People in ancient Europe started to use pillows when going to church in order to kneel on while praying and to place holy books on.[10] This is a tradition that still lives on today. Additionally, the Romans and Greeks used their pillows by placing them under the head of those deceased just like the ancient Egyptians did.[9]

In ancient China

A pottery pillow from the Jīn dynasty (1115–1234)

Chinese pillows were traditionally solid, though sometimes used with a softer fabric over them. Over many Chinese dynasties, pillows were made from a wide range of materials including bamboo, jade, porcelain, wood, and bronze.[11] Ceramic pillows became the most popular.[11] The use of the ceramic pillow first appeared in the Sui Dynasty between 581 and 618 while mass production appeared in the Tang Dynasty between 618 and 907.[11] The Chinese decorated their pillows by making them different shapes and by painting pictures of animals, humans, and plants on them.[11] One common type of pottery used was Cizhou ware. Chinese ceramic pillows reached their peak in terms of production and use during the Song, Jin, and Yuan dynasties between the 10th and 14th century, but slowly phased out during the Ming and Qing dynasties between 1368 and 1911 with the emergence of better pillow making materials.[11]

Construction and parts

A Japanese pillow filled with plastic tubes in a mesh sack

In India, traditional pillows are usually made with plant-borne materials, such as the fluffy, glossy fruit-fibres of silk-cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra (image) and Bombax ceiba)

Internally, a pillow consists of a filler, often made from foam, synthetic plastic fibers, feathers, or down and viscoelastic foam and latex.[5] Traditionally straw was a filler, but this is uncomfortable and rarely used today. Feathers and down are the most expensive and usually the most comfortable; they offer the advantage of softness and their ability to conform to shapes desired by the user, more so than foam or fiber pillows. One of the disadvantages of a down-filled pillow is allergic reaction of the user. There are currently hypoallergenic varieties of down pillows to allow people sensitive to down to enjoy the comfort of feather or down pillows. In Asia, buckwheat is a common filler, as are plastic imitations. Such pillows tend to be smaller than a standard pillow. In India, cotton is also a common filler.

The fill is surrounded with a cover or shell made of cloth, such as silk, known as the pillow case or pillow slip. Some pillows have a fancier cover called a sham which is closed on all sides and usually has a slit in the back through which the pillow is placed. Rectangular standard bed pillow cases usually do not have zippers, but instead have one side open all the time, however, a zippered pillow protector is often placed around standard pillows with the case in turn covering the protector. It is recommended that all types of pillow covers be laundered periodically since they are the part that is in contact with a person’s body. Pillows tend to accumulate dust and microbes among the fill, even when washable pillows are washed. Manufacturers recommend tumble-drying for fifteen minutes every week to freshen them up, and for the heat to kill dust mites. The normal lifespan is two to four years.[12]

Types

A pillow is designed to provide support and comfort to the body and head. There are three main types of pillows; bed pillows, orthopedic pillows and decorative pillows, with some overlapping of use between these. The appropriate size of a bed pillow depends on the size of the bed. Larger pillows than standard are available for queen- and king-sized beds.

The choice of bed pillow depends to some extent upon sleeping positions: one manufacturer recommends a thinner and softer pillow for sleeping face down, medium support for sleeping on one’s back, and a thicker and firmer pillow for sleeping on the side.[12]

Beds

Several pillows on a bed

The classic bed pillow shape is usually a square or rectangle. In the US, they are common in these three sizes (in inches): Standard (20×26 inches), Queen (20×30 inches), and King (20×36 inches). In the US, a less common size is Jumbo (20×28 inches), which is larger than the Standard Size but smaller than the Queen Size.

Pillows are generally covered with a removable pillow case, which facilitates laundering. Apart from the color and from the material of which they are made, pillowcases are described by three characteristics:

  • Size
  • Features
  • Opening/closing

Size conforms to the pillow the case is to contain. They are typically described as:

Standard
16 in × 16 in (41 cm × 41 cm) (square)
Square
26 in × 26 in (66 cm × 66 cm)
Standard
20 in × 26 in (51 cm × 66 cm)
Queen
20 in × 30 in (51 cm × 76 cm)
King
20 in × 36 in (51 cm × 91 cm)

Square is also called continental in the UK. German pillow sizes are 80×80 cm (older) or 40×80 cm (newer). When considered as a subset of bed pillows, Euro pillows finish 26×26 in and older style travel pillows commonly finished 12×16 in.[citation needed]

The main distinguishing feature is whether the pillow case is plain or with a valance around the edge. In the former case this is described as ‘plain style’ and in the latter as ‘Oxford style’.[this quote needs a citation]

“Oxford … has a 5cm-10cm valance round all four sides. With a hemstitched or corded decoration around the inner edge of the valance.”

The opening/closure of pillow cases ranges from the straightforward “bag style” common in the United States to the “housewife style” more common in Europe, with a pocket inside the open end to fully contain the pillow.[this quote needs a citation]

“Housewife is … essentially a bag, with a flap in the open end to tuck the pillowcase behind to keep it in…”

Other methods of closure are ties or buttons/buttonholes.

A body pillow with a light blue pillow case

Body pillows are as long as a full adult body, providing support to the head and neck at the top and to the knees and legs lower down. This type of pillow can be especially useful in providing support for those who sleep on their sides and for pregnant women. Size is 40×140 cm. (See also: Dutch wife)

Orthopedic

Panda shaped travel pillow

Neck pillows support the neck by providing a deep area for the head to rest and a supportive area to keep the neck in alignment with the spine while sleeping. These can also be known as cervical pillows. Cervical pillows help patients to maintain comfortable positioning after therapeutic, orthopedic and surgical measures. [13]

Travel pillows provide support for the neck in a sitting position. Their “U” shape fits around the back of the neck and keeps the head from slipping into an uncomfortable and possibly harmful position during sleep. However, U-shaped pillows can sometimes force the head forward, creating neck stiffness.

Donut pillows are firm pillows shaped like a torus, with a space in the middle to alleviate pressure on the tailbone area while sitting. These pillows are used primarily by individuals who have suffered an injury to the tailbone area, or who suffer pain from hemorrhoids or another ailment of the colon.

Lumbar pillows are designed to support the inward curve of the lower back, filling the space created between the lower back and the back of the chair when in a sitting position. These pillows are generally used to support the lower back while driving or sitting, such as in an office chair. Orthopedic pillows are similar to memory foam pillows.

Decorative

A pile of pillows on a couch

Decorative pillows serve a dual purpose. They often have fancy cover material which serves to decorate the room where they are found. Since decorative textiles are commonly 54 inches in width, many decorative pillows finish about 17×17 inches. (54/3 = 18 less seam allowance) When used to decorate a fully made up bed, decorative pillows are likely thrown aside at bedtime, since they are not covered with a washable pillow case, thus, while found on the bed, they are primarily there for decoration, hence they fall under this category. These pillows may be custom made, as well as made by freelancers.

Decorative pillows are also found on furnishings in more public parts of the home, such as sofas, chairs and window seats. Here, their common use may overlap both orthopedic and bed pillows. For example, unless a person has some particular medical condition, they will likely use a handy decorative pillow for lumbar support, as needed, while seated on a sofa. Likewise, for the occasional nap, decorative pillows are handy for supporting the head or neck, even though they may not be covered with a pillow case, as are bed pillows.

There are five common synonyms for decorative pillows which are descriptive of their use in the home. “Accent” pillows emphasize or accent some other part of the home decor. The terms “sofa pillow” and “couch pillow” refer to the place these decorative pillows are likely found. The terms “toss pillow” and “throw pillow” may refer to the way they generally arrive in their places.[citation needed]

Novelty pillows are shaped like humorous objects (a banana, tweety bird, a human leg, a chainsaw, a dill pickle, a former president) and are meant to brighten up and add humor to a room or lounge area.

Tent-flap pillows are placed at the front of a stack of pillows decorating a bed. “Tent flap” is the term used to describe a separate flap of fabric that is attached at the top of the pillow and folds down over the face. The tent flap can be loose or tacked down; if the flap is loose a decorative tassel or bead is usually used to weigh the flap down so it hangs properly.[14]

Floor pillows are another subset of decorative pillows. These pillows often finish 26×26 inches (one half of the width of the textile, less seam allowance)

from wikipedia