Category Archives: Small Appliances

robotic vacuum cleaner

A robotic vacuum cleaner, often called a robovac, is an autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner that has intelligent programming and a limited vacuum cleaning system. Some designs use spinning brushes to reach tight corners. Others combine a number of cleaning features (mopping, UV sterilization, etc.) simultaneous to vacuuming, thus rendering the machine into more than just a robot “vacuum” cleaner.

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History[edit]

A cleaning robot seen from below

File:Roomba video.ogv

Video of a Roomba operating

Long-exposure photo showing the path taken by a Roomba over 45 minutes

The first robot cleaner to be put into production was Electrolux Trilobite by the Swedish household and professional appliances manufacturer, Electrolux. In 1996, one of Electrolux’s first versions of the Trilobite vacuum was featured on the BBC‘s science program, Tomorrow’s World.[1]

In 2001, the British technology company Dyson built and demonstrated a robot vacuum known as the DC06. However, due to its high price, it was never released to the market.[2]

In 2002, the American advanced technology company, iRobot launched the Roomba floor vacuuming robot. Initially, iRobot decided to produce 15,000 units and 10,000 more units depending on the success of the launch. The Roomba immediately became a huge consumer sensation. By the Christmas season, iRobot produced 50,000 units to meet the holiday demand. After this success, major specialty retailers as well as more than 4,000 outlets such as Target, Kohl’s and Linens ‘n Things began to carry the Roomba.[3]

Since 2002, new variations of robotic vacuum cleaners have appeared in the market. For example, the Canadian bObsweep robotic vacuum that both mops and vacuums,[4] or the Neato Robotics XV-11 robotic vacuum, which uses laser-vision rather than the traditional ultrasound based models.[5]

In 2014, Dyson announced the release of its new robotic vacuum called Dyson 360 Eye, equipped with a 360 degree camera that is mounted on the top of the robot vacuum cleaner and is supposed to provide a better navigation than other brands. The robot vacuum was scheduled for a Japan-only release in spring 2015 with international launches to follow later in the year.[6] Moreover, Dyson announced that the 360 Eye has twice the suction of any other robot vacuum. The accuracy of this claim is doubtful however, since Dyson has been sued for similar claims on multiple occasions before. [7]

from wikipedia

Dehumidifier

A dehumidifier is generally a household appliance which reduces the level of humidity in the air, usually for health or comfort reasons, or to eliminate musty odor. Large dehumidifiers are also used in commercial buildings such as indoor ice rinks to control the humidity level.[1]

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Overview[edit]

By their operation, dehumidifiers extract water from the conditioned air. This collected water (usually called condensate) is not normally used for drinking, and is often discarded.[2] Some designs, such as the ionic membrane dehumidifier, dispose of excess water in a vapor rather than liquid form. The energy efficiency of dehumidifiers can vary widely.

Thermal condensation dehumidification[edit]

These methods rely on drawing air across a cold surface. Since the saturation vapor pressure of water decreases with decreasing temperature, the water in the air condenses on the surface, separating the water from the air.

Mechanical/refrigerative[edit]

Mechanical/refrigeration dehumidifiers, the most common type, usually work by drawing moist air over a refrigerated coil with a fan. The cold evaporator coil of the refrigeration device condenses the water, which is removed, and then the air is reheated by the condenser coil. The now dehumidified, re-warmed air is released into the room. This process works most effectively at higher ambient temperatures with a high dew point temperature. In cold climates, the process is less effective. It is most effective at over 45% relative humidity; higher if the air is cold[citation needed].

This type of dehumidifier differs from a standard air conditioner in that both the evaporator and the condenser are placed in the same air path. A standard air conditioner transfers heat energy out of the room because its condenser coil releases heat outside. However, since all components of the dehumidifier are in the same room, no heat energy is removed. Instead, the electric power consumed by the dehumidifier remains in the room as heat, so the room is actually heated, just as by an electric heater that draws the same amount of power.

In addition, if water is condensed in the room, the amount of heat previously needed to evaporate that water also is re-released in the room (the latent heat of vaporization). The dehumidification process is the inverse of adding water to the room with an evaporative cooler, and instead releases heat. Therefore, an in-room dehumidifier always will warm the room and reduce the relative humidity indirectly, as well as reducing the humidity more directly, by condensing and removing water.

Warm, moist air is drawn into the unit at A in the diagram above. This air passes into a crossflow plate heat exchanger (B) where a substantial proportion of the sensible heat is transferred to a cool supply air stream. This process brings the extracted air close to saturation. The air then passes to the plenum chamber of the extract fan (C) where a portion of it may be rejected to outside. The amount that is rejected can be varied and is rally determined either by legislation relating to the fresh air requirements for the pool as in Germany and Italy or by the requirement to maintain a fresh, odour free environment. The balance of the air then passes into the evaporator coil of the heat pump where it is cooled and the moisture is condensed. This process yields substantial amounts of latent energy to the refrigeration circuit. Fresh air is then introduced to replace the amount that was extracted and the mix is discharged by the supply fan (G) to the crossflow plate exchanger (B) where it is heated by the extract air from the pool. This pre-warmed air then passes through the heat pump condenser (F) where it is heated by the latent energy removed during the condensation process as well as the energy input to the compressor. The warm dry air is then discharged to the room. [3]

Conventional air conditioners[edit]

A conventional air conditioner is very similar to a mechanical/refrigeration dehumidifier and inherently acts as a dehumidifier when chilling the air.[4] In an air conditioner, however, the air passes over the cold evaporator coils and then directly into the room. It is not re-heated by passing over the condenser, as in a refrigeration dehumidifier. Instead, the refrigerant is pumped by the compressor to a condenser which is located outside the room to be conditioned, and the heat is then released to the outside air. Conventional air conditioners use additional energy exhausting air outside, and new air can have more moisture than the room needs, such as a pool room that already holds a high amount of moisture in the air.[5]

The water that condenses on the evaporator in an air conditioner is usually routed to remove extracted water from the conditioned space. Newer high-efficiency window units use the condensed water to help cool the condenser coil by evaporating the water into the outdoor air, while older units simply allowed the water to drip outside.

Spray Dehumidifiers[edit]

When water is chilled below the atmospheric dewpoint, atmospheric water will condense onto it faster than water evaporates from it.[6] Spray dehumidifiers mix sprays of chilled water and air to capture atmospheric moisture. They also capture pollutants and contaminants like pollen, for which purpose they are sometimes called “air washers”.

Makeshift dehumidifiers[edit]

Because window air conditioner units have condensers and expansion units, some of them can be used as makeshift dehumidifiers by sending their heat exhaust back into the same room as the cooled air, instead of the outside environment. If the condensate from the cooling coils is drained away from the room as it drips off the cooling coils, the result will be room air that is drier but slightly warmer.

However, many window air conditioners are designed to dispose of condensate water by re-evaporating it into the exhaust air stream, which cancels out the air humidity decrease caused by the condensation of moisture on the cooling coils. To be effective as a dehumidifier, an air conditioner must be designed or modified so that most or all of the water that condenses is drained away in liquid form, rather than re-evaporated. Even if condensate is drained, a modified air conditioner is still less efficient than a single-purpose appliance with a design optimized for dehumidification. Dehumidifiers are designed to pass air directly over the cooling coils and then the heating coils in a single efficient pass through the device.

In addition, most air conditioners are controlled by a thermostat which senses temperature, rather than a humidistat that senses humidity and is typically used to control a dehumidifier. A thermostat is not designed for the control of humidity, and controls it poorly if at all.

Ice buildup[edit]

Under certain conditions of temperature and humidity, ice can form on a refrigeration dehumidifier’s evaporator coils. The ice buildup can impede airflow and eventually form a solid block encasing the coils. This buildup prevents the dehumidifier from operating effectively, and can cause water damage if condensed water drips off the accumulated ice and not into the collection tray. In extreme cases, the ice can deform or distort mechanical elements, causing permanent damage.

Better-quality dehumidifiers may have a frost or ice sensor. These will turn off the machine and allow the ice-covered coils to warm and defrost. Once defrosted, the machine will automatically restart. Most ice sensors are simple thermal switches and do not directly sense the presence or absence of ice buildup. An alternative design senses the impeded airflow and shuts off the cooling coils in a similar manner.

Thermoelectric dehumidifiers[edit]

Thermoelectric dehumidifiers use a Peltier heat pump to cool a surface and condense water vapor from the air. The design is simpler and has the benefit of being quieter compared to a dehumidifier with a mechanical compressor. However, because of its relatively poor Coefficient of Performance, this design is mainly used for small dehumidifiers. Ice buildup may be a problem, similar to problems with refrigeration dehumidifiers.

Absorption/desiccant dehumidification[edit]

Mobile Adsorption dehumidifier

Portable adsorption dehumidifier

This process uses a special humidity-absorbing material called a desiccant, which is exposed to the air to be conditioned. The humidity-saturated material is then moved to a different location, where it is “recharged” to drive off the humidity, typically by heating it. The desiccant can be mounted on a belt or other means of transporting it during a cycle of operation.

Dehumidifiers which work according to the absorption principle are especially suited for high humidity levels at low temperatures. They are often used in various sectors in industry because humidity levels below 35% can be achieved.

Because of the lack of compressor parts desiccant dehumidifiers are often lighter and quieter than compressor dehumidifiers. Desiccant dehumidifiers can also operate at lower temperatures than compressor dehumidifiers as the unit lacks coils which are unable to extract moisture from the air at lower temperatures.

Ionic membrane dehumidification[edit]

An ionic membrane can be used to move humidity into or out of a sealed enclosure, operating at a molecular level without involving visible liquid water.

The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane is a low power, steady-state dehumidifier for enclosed areas where maintenance is difficult. The electrolytic process delivers dehumidifying capacities up to 0.2 grams/day from a 0.2m³ (7 cu ft) space to 58 grams/day from an 8m³ (280 cu ft). SPE systems generally do not have high dehydration capacities, but because the water vapor is removed through electrolysis, the process is maintenance free. The process also requires very little electrical energy to operate, using no moving parts, making the ionic membranes silent in operation and very reliable over long periods of time. SPE dehumidifiers are typically used to protect sensitive electrical components, medical equipment, museum specimens, or scientific apparatus from humid environments.

The SPE consists of a proton-conductive solid polymer electrolyte and porous electrodes with a catalytic layer composed of noble metal particles.[7] When a voltage is applied to the porous electrode attached to the membrane, the moisture on the anode side (dehumidifying side) dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and oxygen. The hydrogen ions migrate through membrane to be discharged on the cathode (moisture discharging) side where they react with oxygen in the air, resulting in water molecules (vapor), being discharged.[8]

Condensate[edit]

Partially disassembled portable dehumidifier, with condensate bucket and white-colored float sensor visible at center

Disposal[edit]

Most portable dehumidifiers are equipped with a condensate collection receptacle, typically with a float sensor that detects when the collection vessel is full, to shut off the dehumidifier and prevent an overflow of collected water. In humid environments, these buckets will generally fill with water in 8–12 hours, and may need to be manually emptied and replaced several times per day to ensure continued operation.

Many portable dehumidifiers can also be adapted to connect the condensate drip output directly to a drain via a hose. Some dehumidifier models can tie into plumbing drains or use a built-in water pump to empty themselves as they collect moisture.[citation needed] Alternatively, a separate condensate pump may be used to move collected water to a disposal location when gravity drainage is not possible.

Central air conditioning units typically need to be connected to a drain, because the quantity of condensate water generated by such systems can be quite large over time. If the condensate water is directed into the sewer system, it should be suitably trapped. Otherwise, back pressure can allow smells or sewer gases to enter the building. The condensate should not be directed into a septic system of a house, because large central air conditioning systems discharge water that does not need to be treated by septic systems. If the height of the air handler (containing the evaporator) is above the ground level or in the attic of a house, condensate lines can also often be routed into rain gutters. Air handlers located in the basement of a house require condensate pumps to pump the water up to ground level.

Potability[edit]

Generally, dehumidifier water is considered a rather clean kind of greywater: not suitable for drinking, but acceptable for watering plants, though not garden vegetables.[9] The health concerns are:[9]

  • The water may contain trace metals from solder and other metallic parts, most significantly lead (which is quite dangerous), but also copper, aluminum, or zinc. The trace metals may pose a danger if used on edible plants, as they can bioaccumulate. However, the water is usable for irrigation of non-edible plants.
  • Various pathogens, including fungal spores, may accumulate in the water, particularly due to its stagnancy. Unlike in distilled water production, the water is not boiled, which would kill pathogens (including bacteria).
  • As with distilled water, beneficial minerals are largely absent.

Food-grade dehumidifiers, also called atmospheric water generators, are designed to avoid toxic metal contamination and to keep all water contact surfaces clean. The devices are primarily intended to produce pure water, and the dehumidifying effect is viewed as secondary to their operation.

Maintenance[edit]

If condensate water is handled automatically, most dehumidifiers require very little maintenance. Because of the volume of airflow through the appliance, dust buildup needs to be removed so it does not impede airflow; many designs feature removable and washable air filters. Condensate collection trays and containers may need occasional cleaning to remove debris buildup and prevent clogging of drainage passages, which can cause water leakage and overflow.

Applications[edit]

A large industrial dehumidifier for offices and homes

Relative humidity in dwellings should preferably range from 30 to 50%.[10]

Homes and offices[edit]

Dehumidification within buildings can control:

  • excessive body perspiration buildup that cannot evaporate in moisture-saturated air
  • condensation dripping from cold-water pipes
  • warping and sticking of furniture and doors
  • mold and mildew, which can cause laundry, books, and furnishings to develop mustiness
  • clothes moths, fleas, cockroaches, woodlice, millipedes, and dust mites, which thrive in damp conditions

Basements, Crawl Spaces, Kitchens, Bedrooms, Bathrooms, Spas or Indoor Pool Areas, Warehouses, Workshops

Industrial processes[edit]

Dehumidifiers are used in industrial climatic chambers, to reduce relative humidity and the dew point in many industrial applications from waste and fresh water treatment plants to indoor grow rooms where the control of moisture is essential.[11]

Some industries include:

  1. Printing
  2. Grinding and machining
  3. Food packaging and processing

from wikipedia

Hair clippers

Hair clippers are specialized implements used to cut human head hair. They work on the same principle as scissors, but are distinct from scissors themselves and razors. Similar but heavier-duty implements are used to shear sheep, but are called handpieces or machine shears.

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Contents

from wikipedia

Operating principle[edit]

Hair clippers comprise a pair of sharpened comb-like blades in close contact one above the other and the side which slide sideways relative to each other, a mechanism which may be manual or electrical to make the blades oscillate from side to side, and a handle. The clipper is moved so that hair is positioned between the teeth of the comb, and cut with a scissor action when one blade slides sideways relative to the other. Friction between the blades needs to be as low as possible, which is attained by choice of material and finish, and frequent lubrication.

Manual clippers[edit]

Manually operated clipper

Hair clippers are operated by a pair of handles which are alternately squeezed together and released. Barbers used them to cut hair close and fast. The hair was picked up in locks and the head was rapidly depilated. Such haircuts became popular among boys, mostly in schools, and young men in the military and in prisons.

Manual clippers were invented between 1850 and 1890 by Nikola Bizumic, a Serbian barber.[1] While they were widely used in the distant past, the advent and reduction in cost of electric hair clippers has led to their largely replacing manual clippers. Some barbers in Western countries continue to use them for trimming. They are also used in the Russian army: when conscripts enter boot camp, they cut their hair close to the skin, sometimes using manual clippers.[2]

Culture[edit]

In Greece, male students had their heads shaved with manual hair clippers from the early 20th century until it was abolished in 1982. The same practice was used in the military, where recruits had their heads shaved as they set foot in boot camp. In the 1950s and 1960s a law was implemented in Greece whereby head shaving with manual clippers was to be used as a punishment for young people caught by police, such as teddyboys and prostitutes.[citation needed] This practice was extended to Greek hippies and leftist youths during the 1967-73 military regime. Obligatory hair clipping was abolished in Greece in 1982.[3]

Manual hair clippers are used extensively by barbers in India to give short back and sides haircuts.[citation needed] Orthodox Jews tend to avoid clipping the side of their heads.[4] Among Muslim men, it is haram to clip more than a fistful of the beard.[5]

Electric clippers[edit]

An electric trimmer

Electric hair clippers work in the same way as manual ones, but are driven by an electric motor which makes the blades oscillate from side to side. They have gradually displaced manual hair clippers in many countries. Three different motor types are used in clipper production, magnetic, rotary and pivot. Rotary style may be driven by direct current or alternating current electricity source. Both magnetic and pivot style clippers use magnetic forces derived from winding copper wire around steel. Alternating current creates a cycle attracting and relaxing to a spring to create the speed and torque to drive the clipper cutter across the combing blade.

Leo J. Wahl invented the first electric hair clipper. He first designed a hand-held massager for his uncle, Dr. Frank Wahl. Frank Wahl opened a manufacturing plant in Sterling, Illinois to produce and sell Leo’s massager. During this time, Leo would sell massagers to various barbers and noticed an opportunity to improve upon the tools barbers were using at the time.[6]

Leo Wahl took over his uncle’s manufacturing business after Frank left to serve in the Spanish–American War in 1898. Leo continued to work on his inventions and by 1921, he patented his final design of an invention more than a decade in the making- the first electric hair clipper. Within a year, Wahl Manufacturing had manufactured and sold thousands of clippers all over the United States and in 1921 Leo renamed the company the Wahl Clipper Corporation. Leo J. Wahl died on May 20, 1957 with over 100 patent applications to his name. His descendants still operate the company today. Wahl Clipper is now an international industry leader in the manufacturing of products for the professional beauty and barber salon trade, consumer personal care and animal grooming. Wahl products are available in 165 countries around the world.[7]

NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman trims the hair of European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station during Expedition 26. A Wahl clipper attached to a vacuum cleaner was used to remove the free-floating hair clippings.[8]

By 1921, Mathew Andis Sr. entered the electric clipper industry. Production of these clippers began in the basement of his home, with help from Anna, his wife. Andis sold his electric clippers door to door and one year later established the Andis O M Manufacturing with John Oster and Henry Meltzer. After the three men parted ways, Mathew established Andis Clipper Company the following year. Today, Andis Company remains a family-held business.[9] In 1928, the John Oster Manufacturing Company joined the electric clipper market. In 1960, the John Oster Manufacturing Co. was acquired by Sunbeam Corporation. Oster continues to manufacture clippers today but is also known for their kitchenware including but not limited to toasters, ovens, blenders, etc.[10] Wahl Clipper, Andis Company and Oster Company all remain in business today and are highly successful in the clipper industry as are many other companies, such as Kim Laube & Co. Kim Laube & Co specializes in clippers powerful enough for the animal grooming industry, and is committed to keep their manufacturing in U.S.A.

Maintenance[edit]

Electric hair clipper blades must be lubricated frequently. Each major hair clipper manufacturer sells its own brand of hair clipper oil. It is possible to find out what is inside such a product by viewing the product’s safety data sheet online. Wahl Hair Clipper Oil, for example, is simply mineral oil packaged in a bottle with a dropper tip.

Blade material[edit]

Blades are usually made of rust-resistant stainless steel. Ceramic cutters are available; they are not subject to corrosion, and stay sharper longer because of a higher resistance to wear than metal blades. They remain cool to the touch even with fairly prolonged use, as ceramic is a poor heat conductor. However, ceramic blades are brittle and easily broken, and more expensive to replace than metal blades.[citation needed]

 

from wikipedia

Hair removal

Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair.

Hair typically grows all over the human body. Hair can become more visible during and after puberty and men tend to have thicker, more visible body hair than women.[1] Both men and women have visible hair on the head, eyebrows, eyelashes, armpits, pubic region, arms, and legs; men also have thicker hair on their face, abdomen, back and chest. Hair does not generally grow on the lips, the underside of the hands or feet or on certain areas of the genitalia.

Forms of hair removal are practised for various and mostly cultural, sexual, medical or religious reasons. Forms of hair removal have been practised in almost all human cultures since at least the Neolithic era. The methods used to remove hair have varied in different times and regions, but shaving is the most common method.[citation needed]

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from wikipedia

Cultural and sexual aspects[edit]

See also: Bikini waxing

Each culture of human society has developed social norms relating to the presence or absence of body hair, which has changed from one time to another. Different standards can apply to females and males. People whose hair falls outside a culture’s aesthetic standards may experience real or perceived social acceptance problems. For example, for women in several societies, exposure in public of body hair other than head hair, eyelashes and eyebrows is generally considered to be unaesthetic, unattractive and embarrassing.[2] In Middle Eastern societies, removal of the female body hair has been considered proper hygiene, necessitated by local customs, for many centuries.[3]

A woman’s unshaven underarm…
…and a man’s one that has been shaved

With the increased popularity in many countries of women wearing shorter dresses and swimsuits during the 20th century and the consequential exposure of parts of the body on which hair is commonly found, there has been an increase in the practice of women removing unwanted body hair, such as on legs, underarms and elsewhere.[4] In the United States, for example, the vast majority of women regularly shave their legs and armpits, while roughly half also shave their bikini lines.[5]

People may also remove some or all of their pubic hair for aesthetic or sexual reasons. However, some women in Western cultures choose not to remove hair from their bodies, either as a preference or as an act of defiance against what they regard to be an oppressive ritual.

Many men in Western cultures shave their facial hair, so only a minority of men have a beard, even though fast-growing facial hair must be shaved daily to achieve a clean-shaven or hairless look. Some men shave because they cannot grow a “full” beard (generally defined as an even density from cheeks to neck), because their beard color is different from their scalp hair color, or because their facial hair grows in many directions, making a groomed look difficult. Some men shave because their beards are very coarse, causing itchiness and irritation. Some men grow a beard or moustache from time to time to change their appearance.

Some men shave their heads, either as a fashion statement, because they find a shaved head preferable to the appearance of male pattern baldness, or in order to attain enhanced cooling of the skull – particularly for people suffering from hyperhidrosis. A much smaller number of Western women also shave their heads, often as a fashion or political statement.

Within the gay, bi and straight male cultures, some men are known to eliminate or trim pubic hair, a practice that is referred to as being a part of manscaping (portmanteau expression for male-specific landscaping). This custom can be motivated by reasons of potentially increased cleanliness and hygiene, heightened enjoyment during fellatio and analingus, and/or the desire to take on a more youthful appearance.

Some women also shave their heads for cultural or social reasons. In India, tradition required widows in some sections of the society to shave their heads as part of being ostracized (see widowhood in Hinduism). The outlawed custom is still infrequently encountered mostly in rural areas. The society at large and the government are working to end the practice of ostracizing widows.[6] In addition, it continues to be common practice for men to shave their heads prior to embarking on a pilgrimage.

Other reasons[edit]

Religious reasons[edit]

Head-shaving is a part of some Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Jain and Hindu traditions.[citation needed] Buddhist and Christian monks generally undergo some form of head-shaving or tonsure during their induction into monastic life[citation needed]; in Thailand monks shave their eyebrows as well[citation needed]. Brahmin children have their heads ritualistically shaved before beginning school.[citation needed] The Amish religion forbids men from having mustaches, as they are associated with the military.[7]

In some parts of the Theravada Buddhist world, it is common practice to shave the heads of children. Weak or sickly children are often left with a small topknot of hair, to gauge their health and mark them for special treatment. When health improves, the lock is cut off.[citation needed]

In Judaism, there is no obligation to remove hair; nor is there a general prohibition to removing hair. However, there is a prohibition for men using a razor to shave their beards or sideburns; and, by custom, neither men nor women may cut their hair or shave during a 30-day mourning period after the death of an immediate family member.[citation needed]

The Bahá’í Faith recommends against complete and long-term head-shaving outside of medical purposes. It is not currently practiced as a law, contingent upon future decision by the Universal House of Justice, its highest governing body. Sikhs take an even stronger stance, opposing all forms of hair removal. One of the “Five Ks” of Sikhism is Kesh, meaning “hair”. To Sikhs, the maintenance and management of long hair is a manifestation of one’s piety.[citation needed]

Muslim law (Sharia): It is recommended to keep (the beard)[citation needed], and that which is the object of recommendation (foot, hand, back, and chest hair). A Muslim may trim or cut hair on head. The hairs on the chest and the back may be removed. In the 9th century, the use of chemical depilatories for women was introduced by Ziryab in Al-Andalus.[8] Muslims are legislated by the Sunnah to remove under arm hair and pubic hair on a weekly basis; not doing after a 40-day period is considered sinful in the Sharia.

Ancient Egyptian priests also shaved or depilated all over daily, so as to present a “pure” body before the images of the gods.

Medical reasons[edit]

Body hair on an unusually hirsute male

The body hair of surgical patients may be removed before surgery. In the past this may have been achieved by shaving, but that is now considered counter-productive, so clippers or chemical depilatories may be used instead.[9] The shaving of hair has sometimes been used in attempts to eradicate lice or to minimize body odor due to accumulation of odor-causing micro-organisms in hair. Some people with trichiasis find it medically necessary to remove ingrown eyelashes. Shaving against the grain can often cause ingrown hairs.[10]

Many forms of cancer require chemotherapy, which often causes severe and irregular hair loss. For this reason, it is common for cancer patients to shave their heads even before starting chemotherapy.[citation needed]

In extreme situations people may need to remove all body hair to prevent or combat infestation by lice, fleas and other parasites. Such a practice was used, for example, in Ancient Egypt.[citation needed]

In the military[edit]

A close-cropped or completely shaven haircut is common in military organizations. In field environments, soldiers are susceptible to infestation of lice, ticks, and fleas. In addition short hair is also more difficult for an enemy to grab hold of in hand-to-hand combat, and short hair makes fitting gas masks and helmets easier.

The practice serves to cultivate a group oriented environment through the process of removing exterior signs of individuality.[citation needed] In many militaries head-shaving is mandatory for males when beginning their training. However, even after the initial recruitment phase, when head-shaving is no longer required, many soldiers maintain a completely or partially shaven hairstyle (such as a “high and tight“, “flattop” or “buzz cut“) for personal convenience and an exterior symbol of military solidarity.[citation needed] Head-shaving is not required and is often not allowed of females in military service, although they must have their hair cut or tied to regulation length.[citation needed]

Armies may also require males to maintain clean-shaven faces as facial hair can prevent an air-tight seal between the face and breathing or safety equipment, such as a pilot’s oxygen mask, a diver’s mask, or a soldier’s gas mask.[citation needed]

In sport[edit]

It is a common practice for professional footballers (soccer) and road cyclists to remove leg hair for a number of reasons. In the case of a crash or tackle, the absence of the leg hair means the injuries (usually road rash or scarring) can be cleaned up more efficiently, and treatment is not impeded. Professional cyclists as well as Professional Footballers (soccer) also receive regular leg massages, and the absence of hair reduces the friction and increases their comfort and effectiveness.[citation needed]

It is also common for competitive swimmers to shave hair off their legs, arms, and torsos, to reduce drag and provide a heightened ‘feel’ for the water by removing the exterior layer of skin along with the body hair.[11] Some professional soccer players also shave their legs. One of the reasons is that they are required to wear shin guards and in case of a skin rash the affected area can be treated more efficiently.

As punishment[edit]

In some situations, people’s hair is shaved as a punishment or a form of humiliation. After World War II, head-shaving was a common punishment in France, the Netherlands, and Norway for women who had collaborated with the Nazis during the occupation, and, in particular, for women who had sexual relations with an occupying soldier.[12]

In the United States, during the Vietnam War, conservative students would sometimes attack student radicals or “hippies” by shaving beards or cutting long hair. One notorious incident occurred at Stanford University, when unruly fraternity members grabbed Resistance founder (and student-body president) David Harris, cut off his long hair, and shaved his beard.

During European witch-hunts of the Medieval and Early Modern periods, alleged witches were stripped naked and their entire body shaved to discover the so-called witches’ marks. The discovery of witches’ marks was then used as evidence in trials.[13]

Head shaving during present times is also used as a form of payment for challenges or dares lost involving the removal of all body hair.

Inmates have their head shaved upon entry at certain prisons.

Forms of hair removal[edit]

Depilation is the removal of the part of the hair above the surface of the skin. The most common form of depilation is shaving or trimming. Another option is the use of chemical depilatories, which work by breaking the disulfide bonds that link the protein chains that give hair its strength.

Epilation is the removal of the entire hair, including the part below the skin. Methods include waxing, sugaring, epilation devices, lasers, threading, intense pulsed light or electrology. Hair is also sometimes removed by plucking with tweezers.

Hair removal methods[edit]

Many products in the market have proven fraudulent. Many other products exaggerate the results or ease of use.

Temporary removal of hair to the level of the skin lasts several hours to several days and can be achieved by

  • Shaving or trimming (manually or with electric shavers)
  • Depilatories (creams or “shaving powders” which chemically dissolve hair)
  • Friction (rough surfaces used to buff away hair)

“Epilation”, or removal of the entire hair from the root, lasts several days to several weeks and may be achieved by

  • Tweezing (hairs are tweezed, or pulled out, with tweezers or with fingers)
  • Waxing (a hot or cold layer is applied and then removed with porous strips)
  • Sugaring (hair is removed by applying a sticky paste to the skin in the direction of hair growth and then peeling off with a porous strip)
    File:Threading in Wenchang.ogv

    Threading in Wenchang, Hainan, China

  • Threading (also called fatlah or khite in Arabic, or band in Persian) in which a twisted thread catches hairs as it is rolled across the skin
  • Epilators (mechanical devices that rapidly grasp hairs and pull them out).
  • Powder (weakens the root ends of hair and halts hair production).
  • Use of thanaka powder along with kusuma oil.
  • Drugs that directly attack hair growth or inhibit the development of new hair cells. Hair growth will become less and less until it finally stops; normal depilation/epilation will be performed until that time. Hair growth will return to normal if use of product is discontinued.[14] Products include the following:

Permanent hair removal[edit]

For over 130 years, electrology has been in use in the United States. It is approved by the FDA. This technique permanently destroys germ cells[23] responsible for hair growth by way of insertion of a fine probe in the hair follicle and the application of a current adjusted to each hair type and treatment area. Electrology is the only permanent hair removal method recognized by the FDA.[24]

Permanent hair reduction[edit]

  • Laser hair removal (lasers and laser diodes): Laser hair removal technology became widespread in the US and many other countries from the 1990s onwards. It has been approved in the United States by the FDA since 1997. With this technology, light is directed at the hair and is absorbed by dark pigment, resulting in the destruction of the hair follicle. This painless laser hair removal[25] method sometimes becomes permanent after several sessions. The number of sessions needed depends upon the amount and type of hair being removed.[26] Equipment for performing laser hair removal at home has become available in recent years.
  • Intense pulsed light (IPL)
  • Diode epilation (high energy LEDs but not laser diodes)

Clinical comparisons of effectiveness[edit]

A 2006 review article in the journal “Lasers in Medical Science” compared intense pulsed light (IPL) and both alexandrite and diode lasers. The review found no statistical difference in effectiveness, but a higher incidence of side effects with diode laser based treatment. Hair reduction after 6 months was reported as 68.75% for alexandrite lasers, 71.71% for diode lasers, and 66.96% for IPL. Side effects were reported as 9.5% for alexandrite lasers, 28.9% for diode lasers, and 15.3% for IPL. All side effects were found to be temporary and even pigmentation changes returned to normal within 6 months.[27]

Experimental or banned methods[edit]

  • Photodynamic therapy for hair removal (experimental)
  • X-ray hair removal is an efficient, and usually permanent, hair removal method, but also causes severe health problems, occasional disfigurement, and even death.[28] It is illegal in the United States.

Doubtful methods[edit]

Many methods have been proposed or sold over the years without published clinical proof they can work as claimed.

  • Electric tweezers
  • Transdermal electrolysis
  • Transcutaneous hair removal
  • Photoepilators
  • Microwave Hair Removal
  • Foods and Dietary supplements
  • non-prescription topical preparations (also called “hair inhibitors”, “hair retardants”, or “hair growth inhibitors”)

Advantages and disadvantages[edit]

There are several disadvantages to many of these hair removal methods.

Hair removal can cause some issues: skin inflammation, minor burns, lesions, scarring, ingrown hairs, bumps, and infected hair follicles.

Some removal methods are not permanent, can cause medical problems and permanent damage, or have very high costs. Some of these methods are still in the testing phase and have not been clinically proven.

One issue that can be considered an advantage or a disadvantage depending upon an individual’s viewpoint, is that removing hair has the effect of removing information about the individual’s hair growth patterns due to genetic predisposition, illness, androgen levels (such as from pubertal hormonal imbalances or drug side effects), and/or gender status.

In the hair follicle, stemcells reside in a discrete microenvironment called the bulge, located at the base of the part of the follicle that is established during morphogenesis but does not degenerate during the hair cycle. The bulge contains multipotent stemcells that can be recruited during wound healing to help the repair of the epidermis. [29]

Another disadvantage of permanent (laser, electrolysis) hair removal is a decrease in regeneration ability of human skin, since hair follicles contain stem cells which help with healing.[

from wikipedia

sewing machine

A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since the invention of the first working sewing machine, generally considered to have been the work of Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790,[1]the sewing machine has greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry.

Home sewing machines are designed for one person to sew individual items while using a single stitch type. In a modern sewing machine the fabric easily glides in and out of the machine without the inconvenience of needles and thimbles and other such tools used in hand sewing, automating the process of stitching and saving time.

Industrial sewing machines, by contrast to domestic machines, are larger, faster, and more varied in their size, cost, appearance, and task.

click the link below to buy any of your home products from a needle to a sowing mechine from a spoon to refrigerator from a funnel to a wine cooler  at the best prices

Homes Products Store

History[edit]

Invention[edit]

Charles Fredrick Wiesenthal, a German-born engineer working in England was awarded the first British patent for a mechanical device to aid the art of sewing, in 1755. His invention consisted of a double pointed needle with an eye at one end.[2]

Newton Wilson’s copy of Saint’s sewing machine.

Thomas Saint’s chain stitch used on the first ever complete sewing machine design for leather work. An awl preceded the eye pointed needle to make a hole in preparation for the thread.

In 1790, the English inventor Thomas Saint invented the first sewing machine design, but he did not successfully advertise or market his invention.[3] His machine was meant to be used on leather and canvas material. It is likely that Saint had a working model but there is no evidence of one; he was a skilled cabinet maker and his device included many practically functional features: an overhanging arm, a feed mechanism (adequate for short lengths of leather), a vertical needle bar, and a looper.

His sewing machine used the chain stitch method, in which the machine uses a single thread to make simple stitches in the fabric. A stitching awl would pierce the material and a forked point rod would carry the thread through the hole where it would be hooked underneath and moved to the next stitching place, where the cycle would be repeated, locking the stitch.[4] Saint’s machine was designed to aid the manufacture of various leather goods, including saddles and bridles, but it was also capable of working with canvas, and was used for sewing ship sails. Although his machine was very advanced for the era, the concept would need steady improvement over the coming decades before it could become a practical proposition. In 1874, a sewing machine manufacturer, William Newton Wilson, found Saint’s drawings in the London Patent Office, made adjustments to the looper, and built a working machine, currently owned by the London Science Museum.

In 1804, a sewing machine was built by the Englishmen Thomas Stone and James Henderson, and a machine for embroidering was constructed by John Duncan in Scotland.[5] An Austrian tailor, Josef Madersperger, began developing his first sewing machine in 1807. He presented his first working machine in 1814.

The first practical and widely used sewing machine was invented by Barthélemy Thimonnier, a French tailor, in 1829. His machine sewed straight seams using chain stitch like Saint’s model, and in 1830, he signed a contract with Auguste Ferrand, a mining engineer, who made the requisite drawings and submitted a patent application. The patent for his machine was issued on 17 July 1830, and in the same year, he opened (with partners) the first machine-based clothing manufacturing company in the world to create army uniforms for the French Army. However, the factory was burned down, reportedly by workers fearful of losing their livelihood following the issuing of the patent.[6]

A model of the machine is exhibited at the London Science Museum. The machine is made of wood and uses a barbed needle which passes downward through the cloth to grab the thread and pull it up to form a loop to be locked by the next loop. The first American lockstitch sewing machine was invented by Walter Hunt in 1832.[7] His machine used an eye-pointed needle (with the eye and the point on the same end) carrying the upper thread and a falling shuttle carrying the lower thread. The curved needle moved through the fabric horizontally, leaving the loop as it withdrew. The shuttle passed through the loop, interlocking the thread. The feed let the machine down, requiring the machine to be stopped frequently and reset up. Hunt eventually lost interest in his machine and sold individual machines without bothering to patent his invention, and only patenting it at a late date of 1854. In 1842, John Greenough patented the first sewing machine in the United States. The British partners Newton and Archibold introduced the eye-pointed needle and the use of two pressing surfaces to keep the pieces of fabric in position, in 1841.[8]

The first machine to combine all the disparate elements of the previous half-century of innovation into the modern sewing machine was the device built by English inventor John Fisher in 1844, thus a little earlier than the very similar machines built by the infamous Isaac Merritt Singer in 1851, and the lesser known Elias Howe, in 1845. However, due to the botched filing of Fisher’s patent at the Patent Office, he did not receive due recognition for the modern sewing machine in the legal disputations of priority with Singer, and it was Singer who won the benefits of the patent.

Industrial competition[edit]

Elias Howe, born in Spencer, Massachusetts, created his sewing machine in 1845, using a similar method to Fisher’s except that the fabric was held vertically. An important improvement on his machine was to have the needle running away from the point, starting from the eye.[9] After a lengthy stay in England trying to attract interest in his machine, he returned to America to find various people infringing his patent, among them Isaac Merritt Singer.[10] He eventually won a case for patent infringement in 1854, and was awarded the right to claim royalties from the manufacturers using ideas covered by his patent, including Singer.

Singer had seen a rotary sewing machine being repaired in a Boston shop. As an engineer, he thought it was clumsy and decided to design a better one. The machine he devised used a falling shuttle instead of a rotary one; the needle was mounted vertically and included a presser foot to hold the cloth in place. It had a fixed arm to hold the needle and included a basic tension system. This machine combined elements of Thimonnier, Hunt and Howe’s machines. Singer was granted an American patent in 1851, and it was suggested[by whom?] he patent the foot pedal or treadle, used to power some of his machines; unfortunately, the foot pedal had been in use too long for a patent to be issued. When Howe learned of Singer’s machine he took him to court, where Howe won and Singer was forced to pay a lump sum for all machines already produced. Singer then took out a license under Howe’s patent and paid him $1.15 per machine before entering into a joint partnership with a lawyer named Edward Clark. They created the first hire-purchase arrangement to allow people to buy their machines through payments over time.

Meanwhile, Allen B. Wilson developed a shuttle that reciprocated in a short arc, which was an improvement over Singer and Howe’s. However, John Bradshaw had patented a similar device and threatened to sue, so Wilson decided to try a new method. He went into partnership with Nathaniel Wheeler to produce a machine with a rotary hook instead of a shuttle. This was far quieter and smoother than other methods, with the result that the Wheeler & Wilson Company produced more machines in the 1850s and 1860s than any other manufacturer. Wilson also invented the four-motion feed mechanism that is still seen on every sewing machine today. This had a forward, down, back and up motion, which drew the cloth through in an even and smooth motion. Charles Miller patented the first machine to stitch buttonholes.[11][12] Throughout the 1850s more and more companies were being formed, each trying to sue the others for patent infringement. This triggered a patent thicket known as the Sewing Machine War.[13]

In 1856, the Sewing Machine Combination was formed, consisting of Singer, Howe, Wheeler, Wilson, Grover and Baker. These four companies pooled their patents, with the result that all other manufacturers had to obtain a license and pay $15 per machine. This lasted until 1877, when the last patent expired. James Edward Allen Gibbs (1829–1902), a farmer from Raphine in Rockbridge County, Virginia patented the first chain stitch single-thread sewing machine on June 2, 1857. In partnership with James Willcox, Gibbs became a principal partner in Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Company.

Willcox & Gibbs commercial sewing machines are still used in the 21st century.

Spread and maturation[edit]

Jones Family CS machine from around 1935

William Jones started making sewing machines in 1859 and in 1860 formed a partnership with Thomas Chadwick. As Chadwick & Jones, they manufactured sewing machines at Ashton-under-Lyne, England until 1863. Their machines used designs from Howe and Wilson produced under licence.[14] Thomas Chadwick later joined Bradbury & Co. William Jones opened a factory in Guide Bridge, Manchester in 1869.[15] In 1893 a Jones advertising sheet claimed that this factory was the “Largest Factory in England Exclusively Making First Class Sewing Machines”.[16] The firm was renamed as the Jones Sewing Machine Co. Ltd and was later acquired by Brother Industries of Japan, in 1968.[17]

Vintage sewing patterns

Clothing manufacturers were the first sewing machine customers, and used them to produce the first ready-to-wear clothing and shoes. In the 1860s consumers began purchasing them, and the machines—ranging in price from £6 to £15 in Britain depending on features—became very common in middle-class homes. Owners were much more likely to spend free time with their machines to make and mend clothing for their families than to visit friends, and women’s magazines and household guides such as Mrs Beeton’s offered dress patterns and instructions. A sewing machine could produce a man’s shirt in about one hour, compared to 14 1/2 hours by hand.[18]

In 1877 the world’s first crochet machine was invented and patented by Joseph M. Merrow, then-president of what had started in the 1840s as a machine shop to develop specialized machinery for the knitting operations. This crochet machine was the first production overlock sewing machine. The Merrow Machine Company went on to become one of the largest American Manufacturers of overlock sewing machines, and continues to be a global presence in the 21st century as the last American over-lock sewing machine manufacturer.

In 1885 Singer patented the Singer Vibrating Shuttle sewing machine, which used Allen B. Wilson’s idea for a vibrating shuttle and was a better lockstitcher than the oscillating shuttles of the time. Millions of the machines, perhaps the world’s first really practical sewing machine for domestic use, were produced until finally superseded by rotary shuttle machines in the 20th century. Sewing machines continued being made to roughly the same design, with more lavish decoration appearing until well into the 1900s.

The first electric machines were developed by Singer Sewing Co. and introduced in 1889.[19] By the end of the First World War, Singer was offering hand, treadle and electric machines for sale. At first the electric machines were standard machines with a motor strapped on the side, but as more homes gained power, they became more popular and the motor was gradually introduced into the casing.

Design[edit]

Stitches[edit]

The bobbin driver of a Husqvarna 3600 sewing machine

Sewing machines can make a great variety of plain or patterned stitches. Ignoring strictly decorative aspects, over three dozen distinct stitch formations are formally recognized by the ISO 4915:1991 standard, involving one to seven separate threads to form the stitch.[20]

Plain stitches fall into four general categories: chainstitch, lockstitch, overlock, and coverstitch.

Chainstitch[edit]

Chainstitch was used by early sewing machines and has two major drawbacks:

The basic chain stitch.

  • The stitch is not self-locking, and if the thread breaks at any point or is not tied at both ends, the whole length of stitching comes out. It is also easily ripped out.[21]
  • The direction of sewing cannot be changed much from one stitch to the next, or the stitching process fails.

A better stitch was found in the lockstitch. The chainstitch is still used today in clothing manufacture, though due to its major drawback it is generally paired with an overlock stitch along the same seam.

Lockstitch[edit]

Formation of a lock-stitch using a boat shuttle as employed in early domestic machines

Lockstitch utilising a rotating hook invented by Allen B Wilson. This is employed on many modern machines

Formation of the double locking chain stitch

Lockstitch is the familiar stitch performed by most household sewing machines and most industrial “single needle” sewing machines from two threads, one passed through a needle and one coming from a bobbin or shuttle. Each thread stays on the same side of the material being sewn, interlacing with the other thread at each needle hole by means of a bobbin driver. As a result, a lockstitch can be formed anywhere on the material being sewn; it does not need to be near an edge.

Overlock[edit]

A Zoje industrial overlocker

Overlock, also known as “serging” or “serger stitch”, can be formed with one to four threads, one or two needles, and one or two loopers. Overlock sewing machines are usually equipped with knives that trim or create the edge immediately in front of the stitch formation. Household and industrial overlock machines are commonly used for garment seams in knit or stretchy fabrics, for garment seams where the fabric is light enough that the seam does not need to be pressed open, and for protecting edges against raveling. Machines using two to four threads are most common, and frequently one machine can be configured for several varieties of overlock stitch. Overlock machines with five or more threads usually make both a chainstitch with one needle and one looper, and an overlock stitch with the remaining needles and loopers. This combination is known as a “safety stitch”. A similar machine used for stretch fabrics is called a mock safety.

Coverstitch[edit]

Coverstitch is formed by two or more needles and one or two loopers. Like lockstitch and chainstitch, coverstitch can be formed anywhere on the material being sewn. One looper manipulates a thread below the material being sewn, forming a bottom cover stitch against the needle threads. An additional looper above the material can form a top cover stitch simultaneously. The needle threads form parallel rows, while the looper threads cross back and forth all the needle rows. Coverstitch is so-called because the grid of crossing needle and looper threads covers raw seam edges, much as the overlock stitch does. It is widely used in garment construction, particularly for attaching trims and flat seaming where the raw edges can be finished in the same operation as forming the seam.

Zigzag stitch[edit]

Zigzag stitch

A zigzag stitch is a variant geometry of the lockstitch. It is a back-and-forth stitch used where a straight stitch will not suffice, such as in preventing raveling of a fabric, in stitching stretchable fabrics, and in temporarily joining two work pieces edge-to-edge.

When creating a zigzag stitch, the back-and-forth motion of the sewing machine’s needle is controlled by a cam. As the cam rotates, a fingerlike follower, connected to the needle bar, rides along the cam and tracks its indentations. As the follower moves in and out, the needle bar is moved from side to side.[22] Very old sewing machines lack this hardware and so cannot natively produce a zigzag stitch, but there are often shank-driven attachments available which enable them to do so.

Feed mechanisms[edit]

Besides the basic motion of needles, loopers and bobbins, the material being sewn must move so that each cycle of needle motion involves a different part of the material. This motion is known as feed, and sewing machines have almost as many ways of feeding material as they do of forming stitches. For general categories, there are: drop feed, needle feed, walking foot, puller, and manual. Often, multiple types of feed are used on the same machine. Besides these general categories, there are also uncommon feed mechanisms used in specific applications like edge joining fur, making seams on caps, and blindstitching.

Drop feed[edit]

Presser foot raised with feed dogs visible

The drop feed mechanism is used by almost all household machines and involves a mechanism below the sewing surface of the machine. When the needle is withdrawn from the material being sewn, a set of “feed dogs” is pushed up through slots in the machine surface, then dragged horizontally past the needle. The dogs are serrated to grip the material, and a “presser foot” is used to keep the material in contact with the dogs. At the end of their horizontal motion, the dogs are lowered again and returned to their original position while the needle makes its next pass through the material. While the needle is in the material, there is no feed action. Almost all household machines and the majority of industrial machines use drop feed. Differential feed is a variation of drop feed with two independent sets of dogs, one before and one after the needle. By changing their relative motions, these sets of dogs can be used to stretch or compress the material in the vicinity of the needle. This is extremely useful when sewing stretchy material, and overlock machines (heavily used for such materials) frequently have differential feed.

Needle feed[edit]

A needle feed, used only in industrial machines, moves the material while the needle is in the material. In fact, the needle may be the primary feeding force. Some implementations of needle feed rock the axis of needle motion back and forth, while other implementations keep the axis vertical while moving it forward and back. In both cases, there is no feed action while the needle is out of the material. Needle feed is often used in conjunction with a modified drop feed, and is very common on industrial two needle machines. Household machines do not use needle feed as a general rule.

Walking foot[edit]

Vintage Davis vertical feed (walking foot) sewing machine produced around 1890

A walking foot replaces the stationary presser foot with one that moves along with whatever other feed mechanisms the machine already has. As the walking foot moves, it shifts the workpiece along with it. It is most useful for sewing heavy materials where needle feed is mechanically inadequate, for spongy or cushioned materials where lifting the foot out of contact with the material helps in the feeding action, and for sewing many layers together where a drop feed will cause the lower layers to shift out of position with the upper layers.

Puller feed[edit]

Some factory machines and a few household machines are set up with an auxiliary puller feed, which grips the material being sewn (usually from behind the needles) and pulls it with a force and reliability usually not possible with other types of feed. Puller feeds are seldom built directly into the basic sewing machine. Their action must be synchronized with the needle and feed action built into the machine to avoid damaging the machine. Pullers are also limited to straight seams, or very nearly so. Despite their additional cost and limitations, pulling feeds are very useful when making large heavy items like tents and vehicle covers.

Manual feed[edit]

A manual feed is used primarily in freehand embroidery, quilting, and shoe repair. With manual feed, the stitch length and direction is controlled entirely by the motion of the material being sewn. Frequently some form of hoop or stabilizing material is used with fabric to keep the material under proper tension and aid in moving it around. Most household machines can be set for manual feed by disengaging the drop feed dogs. Most industrial machines can not be used for manual feed without actually removing the feed dogs.

Needles[edit]

Main article: Sewing machine needle

Sewing machines use special needles tailored to their needs and to the character of the material being sewn.

Industrial vs domestic[edit]

Industrial Sewing Machine (left), Domestic Sewing machine (right)

Industrial sewing machines are larger, faster, and more varied in their size, cost, appearance, and task. Industrial machines, unlike domestic machines, perform a single dedicated task and are capable of long hours of usage and as such have larger moving parts and comparatively much larger motors. Industrial machines are also more generic; a motor for almost any type of machine can work on any brand. Sewing feet and bobbins between brands are interchangeable. However, with domestic machines the motor, and to a lesser extent bobbins and sewing feet, are brand specific.

The motors on industrial machines, as with most of their components, lights, etc., are separate, usually mounted to the underside of the table. Domestic machines have their OEM motors mounted inside the machine. There are two different types of motor available for industrial machines: a servo motor (which uses less electricity and is silent when not in use), and the more traditional clutch motor (which is always spinning; even when not in use).[23]

Social impact[edit]

Seamstresses in 1904

Before sewing machines were invented women spent much of their time maintaining their family’s clothing. Middle-class housewives, even with the aid of a hired seamstress, would devote several days of each month to this task. It took an experienced seamstress at least 14 hours to make a dress shirt for a man; a woman’s dress took 10 hours;[24] and a pair of summer pants took nearly three hours.[25] Most individuals would have only two sets of clothing: a work outfit and a Sunday outfit.

Sewing machines reduced the time for making a dress shirt to an hour and 15 minutes; the time to make a dress to an hour;[24] and the time for a pair of summer pants to 38 minutes.[25] This reduced labor resulted in women having a diminished role in household management, and allowed more hours for their own leisure as well as the ability to seek more employment.[24]

Woman using a treadle sewing machine manufactured by Singer

Women working in a clothing factory in Montreal, Quebec in 1941

Industrial use of sewing machines further reduced the burden placed upon housewives, moving clothing production from housewives and seamstresses to large-scale factories.[24] The movement to large-scale factories also resulted in a decrease in the amount of time clothing production took, which caused the prices for clothing to drop significantly. This is because manufacturers were able to decrease the number of workers needed to produce the same amount of clothing, resulting in reduced costs. Increased supply also lowered the cost.[25]

The initial effects of sewing machines on workers were both positive and negative, however in the long run the negative effects decreased. Many of the women who had previously been busy at home could now seek employment in factories, increasing the income for their family. This allowed for families to be able to afford more sets of clothing and items than they previously could.[25] For seamstresses, home sewing machines allowed them to produce clothing for the average person during periods when demand for fitted clothes was low, effectively increasing their earnings. When industrial sewing machines initially became popular many seamstresses working in factories as well as those working at home lost their jobs as it meant that fewer workers could produce the same output.[24] In the long run these now unemployed workers along with thousands of men and children would eventually be able to gain employment in jobs created as the clothing industry grew.[25]

The sewing machine’s effects on the clothing industry resulted in major changes for other industries as well. Cotton production needed to increase in order to match the demand of the new clothing factories. As a result, cotton became planted in new areas where it hadn’t previously been farmed. Other industries involved in the process benefited as well such as metal companies who provided for parts of the machines and shippers to move the increased amounts of goods.[26] Gun makers visited clothing factories in order to perfect their own mass production techniques.[27] In addition to being important for clothing production, sewing machines also became important in the manufacturing of furniture with upholstery, curtains and towels, toys, books, and many other products.[26]

Variations[edit]

There are other variations of sewing machines aside from purely human-driven ones. These include:

  • High-speed industrial sewing machine
  • Electrical, programmable, automatic pattern stitching sewing machine

Manufacturers[edit]

Not included in list of above category link includes:

 

from wikipedia

deep fryer

A deep fryer (also known as a frier, deep fat fryer or fryolator) is a kitchen appliance used for deep frying.

While commonly used in commercial kitchens, household models are available and have become common.

Features[edit]

Modern fryers feature a basket to raise food clear of the oil when cooking is finished. Fryers often come with features such as timers with an audible alarm, automatic devices to raise and lower the basket into the oil, measures to prevent food crumbs from becoming over cooked, ventilation systems to reduce frying odors, oil filters to extend the usable life of the oil, and mechanical or electronic temperature controls. Deep fryers are used for cooking many fast foods, and making them crisp.

Construction[edit]

The modern commercial fryer boasts improved energy efficiency due in part to better heat transfer systems. Commercial fryers with infrared heating or convection heating are efficient, but often expensive. The most common fryer models are electric and gas.

Electric restaurant fryers are popular in counter top models because of their mobility. They lose a little less heat than gas fryers because their heating elements are immersed in the oil, and they have a faster temperature recovery time between frying cycles. Gas fryers heat up more quickly and to a higher cooking temperature than electric fryers. Gas fryers can be powered by either natural gas or propane, both of which are generally less expensive energy sources than electricity. This makes gas power especially popular in floor model fryers.

Commercial fryers are generally available in mild steel or stainless steel. Stainless steel is less likely to corrode or stain than mild steel. Mild steel also expands under heat which may damage the welds over time. Because of this, stainless steel fryers often come with a much better warranty than mild steel fryers.

Fryers are available with a variety of fry pot styles. Some commercial fryers have a “cold zone” at the bottom of the fry pot. This is where larger food particles sink and the lower temperature keeps them from burning and tainting the oil. A tube-style fry pot has a large cold zone because the tubes are slightly above the bottom of the vat, leaving generous space for cooler oil and crumbs. This is particularly useful for cooking heavily breaded foods (such as a blooming onion). A tube-style fry pot is more difficult to clean than an open fry pot, but the tubes allow easy access to the heat source. Tube fryers are often a little less expensive than their open fry pot counterparts. Open fry pots have an external heat source, which makes them easier to clean and affords better access to the oil, but they generally offer a smaller cold zone, so food particles that sink could scorch and pollute the flavor of the oil. However, these fryers work very well for lightly breaded foods. Flat-bottomed restaurant fryers—another type of open frypot fryer—can also be difficult to clean and have no cold zone, but they are highly effective for frying dough (such as donuts or funnel cakes). Flat-bottom fryer pots may also be used with a batter trapping insert that keeps loose batter from quickly scorching on the bottom where heat is normally applied. A batter trap can also help keep loose batter from being stirred up in the oil and adhering to subsequent batches of food in order to make foods taste better and the cooking oil lasts longer.

Some domestic fryers utilize an angled motorized rotary basket that circulate its contents through the hot oil. This design requires approximately half the amount of oil that a more traditionally designed fryer would require. Domestic fryers are generally smaller in size and capacity. Domestic fryers generally range between 2 – 4 liters capacity.

Temperature controls[edit]

Many of the new fryer models include electronic temperature controls. These computerized controls save energy by constantly sensing and adjusting the temperature of the oil. A high quality thermostat can stay within a 7.2 ˚C range of a desired temperature, assuring accurate cook times. Safety thermostats that automatically cut the power if the oil reaches dangerous temperatures help prevent oil fires.

Oil filtration[edit]

An oil filtration system, chemical treatment, or diatomaceous earth powder all help remove tiny food particles that are not always visible. Using these systems doubles the life of the oil. Oil filtration systems can sometimes be purchased as an enclosed part of the fryer to avoid involving employees in the somewhat dangerous process of filtering the oil with an exterior system. Many restaurants use a portable oil filtration system to transport waste oil to a disposal area. However, even old oil is not completely useless. There are ways (involving other chemicals and machinery) to “recycle” old oil as biodiesel that can power diesel vehicles.

Accessories[edit]

Restaurant fryers are available with a wide array of accessories and options. There are countertop models, single floor models, and “fryer batteries” with multiple floor fryers, a filtration system, and holding stations all built together as one large floor fryer system. Individual fryers may have one or more tanks. Commercial floor-model fryers can be fitted with casters for easier maintenance and cleanup. Fry baskets also come in various shapes and sizes, from taco salad bowls to onion loaf baskets, with or without heat resistant handles.

Automated deep fryers[edit]

Industrial enterprises producing deep-fried snack foods such as potato chips or pre-fried French fried potatoes use automated frying systems that consist mainly of the actual frying pan, a tube type heat exchanger to heat the frying oil, a filter, a circulation pump, a banana tank for fresh oil and the automation system, most often a PLC.[citation needed] As the product leaving the fryer contains a percentage of oil (in potato chips approx. 35%)[citation needed] there is a constant flow of fresh oil into the system. Sensors for the temperature of the oil, the oil level, different pressures in the system and other parameters are used as input for the PLC.[citation needed]

Fire risks[edit]

Naturally, a malfunctioning and/or misused deep fryer poses a serious fire risk, especially with gas-powered deep fryers. Furthermore, putting water on oil fires will cause a fire boilover and aggravate the situation. There are special fire extinguishers and hood-based fire suppression systems for food oil fires, often using alkaline chemicals such as potassium citrate and potassium acetate that react with the oils, trap the steam and vapors, and thus suppress the fire by saponification.[1][2][3]

Domestic fryers often include a safety cut-out in case of overheating, for example if not enough oil is used or the fryer is switched on whilst empty. A reset button is included on most of these fryers to reset the safety device once the unit has cooled down; if a reset button is not included the fryer may need repairing if the safety device activates.[4]

from wikipedia

George Foreman Grill

The George Foreman Lean Mean Fat-Reducing Grilling Machine, commonly known as the George Foreman Grill, is an indoor, electrically heated grill manufactured by Spectrum Brands. It is promoted by former boxing champion George Foreman. Since its introduction in 1994, over 100 million George Foreman grills have been sold worldwide.[2]

History[edit]

The concept for the grill was created by Michael Boehm of Batavia, Illinois. The original intention was to create an indoor grill that would provide a unique benefit of cooking on both sides at once[3] A second key benefit was to reduce the fat content of hamburgers and other meats by draining away the fat into a separate reservoir. Michael Boehm designed the product with a floating hinge and slanted grilling surface to accommodate foods of different thicknesses and drain fat away from the food. Engineering work was done by Bob Johnson. The grill had been promoted at industry trade shows in the early 1990s, but received little interest.[4]

The slanted grill concept was pitched by Tsann Kuen to Salton Inc. Salton sent samples of the grill to George Foreman’s colleagues who then sent the grill to George to test out. Michael had nothing to do with teaming up the grill and George.

The Lean Mean Fat-Reducing Grilling Machine, as it became known, was introduced in 1994 and promoted with distinctive infomercials which featured Foreman. A combination of his affable personality and the unique features of the product made it a huge success. The product gained a certain success that it had previously not been able to attain prior to Foreman’s endorsement. Such was the popularity of these infomercials that Foreman’s famous tagline, “It’s so good I put my name on it!”,[5] is now part of popular culture. In Asia, the grill is endorsed and promoted by both George Foreman and Jackie Chan.

Design[edit]

The product has a clamshell design which simultaneously heats the top and bottom surfaces of the food, eliminating the need to flip it.[6] Each heating surface is grooved to reduce contact area, and covered in a non-stick coating. The lower heating surface is angled to allow melted fat and other fluids to drain through the grooves into a removable drip tray, which clearly shows the amount removed from the food. This arrangement has been marketed as a way to “knock out the fat”, suggesting a healthier way to cook.

The grill is offered in various sizes for cooking individual or multiple servings. In 2006, the George Foreman “Next Grilleration” Health Grill was launched, which features detachable grilling plates for easier cleaning. It has gone through several other versions, differing in their control interfaces and design.

Reception[edit]

The worldwide popularity of the George Foreman grill has resulted in sales of over 100 million units since it was first launched, a feat that was achieved in a little over 15 years. Although Foreman has never confirmed exactly how much he has earned from the endorsement, Salton Inc paid him $137 million in 1999 in order to buy out the right to use his name. Previous to that he was being paid about 40% of the profits on each grill sold (earning him $4.5 million a month in payouts at its peak), so it is estimated he has made a total of over $200 million from the endorsement, a sum that is substantially more than he earned as a boxer.[7]

Competition[edit]

The success of the George Foreman Grill spawned a variety of similar celebrity-endorsed products such as the Evander Holyfield Real Deal Grill, for which Holyfield starred in a 2007 infomercial,[8][9] the Carl Lewis Health Grill, and the Jackie Chan Grill, which targets the Asian market. None of these imitators, however, achieved the level of success of the Foreman Grill.[10] In the VH1 show Hogan Knows Best, Hulk Hogan claimed that he was offered the contract for the grill first, but missed his agent’s phone call because he was “picking up the kids”, and thus missed out on the endorsement. Instead, he endorsed a Hulk Hogan blender, and later the Hulk Hogan Ultimate Grill.[11]

In popular culture[edit]

 

  • from Wikipedia

Barbecue Grill

A barbecue grill is a device that cooks food by applying heat from below. There are several varieties of grills, with most falling into one of two categories: gas-fueled or charcoal. There is debate over which method yields superior results.[1]

History in the US[edit]

Grilling has existed in the Americas since pre-Colonial times. The Arawak people of South America roasted meat on a wooden structure called a barbacoa in Spanish.[2] For centuries, the term barbacoa referred to the wooden structure and not the act of grilling, but it was eventually modified to “barbecue.” It was also applied to the pit-style cooking techniques now frequently used in the Southeastern United States. Barbecue was originally used to slow-cook hogs; however, different ways of preparing food led to regional variations.[3] Over time, other foods were cooked in a similar fashion, with hamburgers and hot dogs being recent additions.[4]

The LazyMan Model AP, the world’s first portable gas grill. Taken during the summer of 1954.

E.G. Kingsford invented the modern charcoal briquette. Kingsford was a relative of Henry Ford who assigned him the task of establishing a Ford auto parts plant and sawmill in northern Michigan, a challenge that Kingsford embraced. The local community grew and was named Kingsford in his honor. Kingsford noticed that Ford’s Model T production lines were generating a large amount of wood scraps that were being discarded. He suggested to Ford that a charcoal manufacturing facility be established next to the assembly line to process and sell charcoal under the Ford name at Ford dealerships. Several years after Kingsford’s death, the chemical company was sold to local businessmen and renamed the Kingsford Chemical Company.

George Stephen[5] created the iconic hemispherical grill design, jokingly called “Sputnik” by Stephen’s neighbors. Stephen, a welder, worked for Weber Brothers Metal Works, a metal fabrication shop primarily concerned with welding steel spheres together to make buoys. Stephen was tired of the wind blowing ash onto his food when he grilled so he took the lower half of a buoy, welded three steel legs onto it, and fabricated a shallower hemisphere for use as a lid. He took the results home and following some initial success, started the Weber-Stephen Products Co.

The outdoor gas grill was invented in the early 1950s by Don McGlaughlin, owner of the Chicago Combustion Corporation, known today as LazyMan.[6] McGlaughlin invented the first built-in grill from the successful gas broiler called BROILBURGER. These first Lazy-Man grills were marketed as “open-fire charcoal-type gas broilers” which featured “permanent coals”, otherwise known as lava rock.[7] In the 1950s, most residential households did not have a barbecue, so the term broiler was used for marketing purposes to commercial establishments. The gas open-broiler design was adapted into the first portable gas grill in 1954 by Chicago Combustion Corporation as the Model AP. McGlaughlin’s portable design was the first to feature the use of the 20-lb propane cylinders, which previously were exclusively used by plumbers as a fuel source.[8]

Gas grills[edit]

A single-burner propane gas grill that conforms to the cart grill design common among gas grills.

Gas-fueled grills typically use propane (LP) or natural gas (NG) as their fuel source, with gas-flame either cooking food directly or heating grilling elements which in turn radiate the heat necessary to cook food. Gas grills are available in sizes ranging from small, single steak grills up to large, industrial sized restaurant grills which are able to cook enough meat to feed a hundred or more people. Gas grills are designed for either LP or NG, although it’s possible to convert a grill from one gas source to another.

The majority of gas grills follow the cart grill design concept: the grill unit itself is attached to a wheeled frame that holds the fuel tank. The wheeled frame may also support side tables and other features.

A recent trend in gas grills is for manufacturers to add an infrared radiant burner to the back of the grill enclosure. This radiant burner provides an even heat across the burner and is intended for use with a horizontal rotisserie. A meat item (whole chicken, beef roast, pork loin roast) is placed on a metal skewer that is rotated by an electric motor. Smaller cuts of meat can be grilled in this manner using a round metal basket that slips over the metal skewer.

Another type of gas grill gaining popularity is called a flattop grill. According to Hearth and Home magazine, flattop grills “on which food cooks on a griddlelike surface and is not exposed to an open flame at all” is an emerging trend in the outdoor grilling market.[9]

A small metal “smoker box” containing wood chips may be used on a gas grill to give a smoky flavor to the grilled foods. Although, barbecue purists would argue that to get a true smoky flavor (and smoke ring) the user has to cook low and slow, indirectly and using wood or charcoal. Gas grills are difficult to maintain at the low temperatures required (~225-250 °F), especially for extended periods.

Infrared grills[edit]

An ignited Infrared grill burner, only seeing the visible light spectrum.

Infrared grills work by igniting propane or natural gas to heat a ceramic tile, causing it to emit infrared radiation by which the food is cooked. The thermal radiation is generated when heat from the movement of charged particles within atoms is converted to electromagnetic radiation in the infrared heat frequency range. The benefits are that heat is uniformly distributed across the cooking surface and that temperatures reach over 500 °C (900 °F), allowing users to sear items quickly.

Infrared cooking differs from other forms of grilling, which uses hot air to cook the food. Instead of heating the air, infrared radiation heats the food directly. The benefits of this are a reduction in pre-heat time and less drying of the food. Grilling enthusiasts claim food cooked on an infrared grill tastes similar to food from char-grills. Proponents say that food cooked on infrared grills seems juicier. Also, infrared grills have the advantages of instant ignition, better heat control, and a uniform heat source.

This technology was previously patented, but the patents expired in 2000 and more companies have started offering infrared grills at lower prices.

Charcoal grills[edit]

Charcoal grills use either charcoal briquettes or all-natural lump charcoal as their fuel source. When burned, the charcoal will transform into embers radiating the heat necessary to cook food.

There is contention among grilling enthusiasts on what type of charcoal is best for grilling. Users of charcoal briquettes emphasize the uniformity in size, burn rate, heat creation, and quality exemplified by briquettes. Users of all-natural lump charcoal emphasize the reasons they prefer it: subtle smoky aromas, high heat production, and lack of binders and fillers often present in briquettes.

There are many different charcoal grill configurations. Some grills are square, round, or rectangular, some have lids while others do not, and some may or may not have a venting system for heat control. The majority of charcoal grills, however, fall into the following categories:

Brazier[edit]

A brazier grill loaded with fresh charcoal briquettes.

The simplest and most inexpensive of charcoal grills, the brazier grill is made of wire and sheet metal and composed of a cooking grid placed over a charcoal pan. Usually the grill is supported by legs attached to the charcoal pan. The brazier grill does not have a lid or venting system. Heat is adjusted by moving the cooking grid up or down over the charcoal pan. Even after George Stephen invented the kettle grill in the early 1950s, the brazier grill remained a dominant charcoal grill type for a number of years. Brazier grills are available at most discount department stores during the summer.

Pellet grill[edit]

Pellet grills are fueled by compressed hardwood pellets (sawdust compressed with vegetable oil or water at approx. 10k psi) that are loaded into a hopper and fed into a fire box at the bottom of the grill via an electric powered auger that is controlled by a thermostat. The pellets are lit by an electric ignitor rod that starts the pellets burning and they turn into coals in the firebox once they burn down. Most pellet grills are a barrel shape with a square hopper box at the end or side.

The advantage of a pellet grill is its temperature versatility. It can be set on a “smoke” mode where it burns at 100–150 °F (38–66 °C) for slow smoking. It can also be set at 180–350 °F (82–177 °C) to slow cook or barbecue meats (like brisket, ribs and hams) or cranked up to a temperature of 450–500 °F (232–260 °C) for what would be considered low temperature grilling. Some high-end pellet grills can reach up to 700 °F (371 °C) for perfect searing.[citation needed] It is one of the few grills that is actually a smoker, a barbecue and a grill. The best pellet grills can hold steady temperatures for more than ten hours. Many use solid diffuser plates between the firebox and grill to provide even temperature distributions.

Most pellet grills burn 1/2 to 1 pound of pellets per hour at 180–250 °F (82–121 °C), depending on the “hardness” of the wood, ambient temperature and how often the lid is opened. Most hoppers hold 10 to 20 pounds of wood pellets. Pellets in a wide variety of woods including:hickory, oak, maple, apple, alder, mesquite, and grapevine, etc., and can be used, or mixed, for desired smoke flavoring.

Pellet technology is widely used in home heating in certain parts of North America. Softer woods including pine are often used for home heating. Pellets for home heating are not cooking grade and should not be used in pellet grills.

Square charcoal[edit]

The square charcoal grill is a hybrid of the brazier and the kettle grill. It has a shallow pan like the brazier and normally a simple method of adjusting the heat, if any. However, it has a lid like a kettle grill and basic adjustable vents. The square charcoal grille is, as expected, priced between the brazier and kettle grill, with the most basic models priced around the same as the most expensive braziers and the most expensive models competing with basic kettle grills. These grills are available at discount stores and have largely displaced most larger braziers. Square charcoal grills almost exclusively have four legs with two wheels on the back so the grill can be tilted back using the handles for the lid to roll the grill. More expensive examples have baskets and shelves mounted on the grill.

Shichirin (hibachi)[edit]

Various Japanese traditional shichirin (Tokyo Egota), made from diatomite

The traditional Japanese hibachi is a heating device and not usually used for cooking. In English, however, “hibachi” often refers to small cooking grills typically made of aluminum or cast iron, with the latter generally being of a higher quality. Owing to their small size, hibachi grills are popular as a form of portable barbecue. They resemble traditional, Japanese, charcoal-heated cooking utensils called shichirin.

Alternatively, “hibachi-style” is often used in the U.S. as a term for Japanese teppanyaki cooking, in which gas-heated hotplates are integrated into tables around which many people (often multiple parties) can sit and eat at once. The chef performs the cooking in front of the diners, typically with theatrical flair—such as lighting a volcano-shaped stack of raw onion hoops on fire.

In its most common form, the hibachi is an inexpensive grill made of either sheet steel or cast iron and composed of a charcoal pan and two small, independent cooking grids. Like the brazier grill, heat is adjusted by moving the cooking grids up and down. Also like the brazier grill, the hibachi does not have a lid. Some hibachi designs have venting systems for heat control. The hibachi is a good grill choice for those who do not have much space for a larger grill, or those who wish to take their grill traveling. Binchō-tan is most suitable for fuel of shichirin.

Kettle[edit]

Two charcoal kettle grills, a small 18 inches (460 mm) tabletop model, and a freestanding 22.5 inches (570 mm) model.

The kettle grill is considered the classic American grill design.[citation needed] The original and often-copied Weber kettle grill was invented in 1951 by George Stephen. It has remained one of the most commercially successful charcoal grill designs to date. Smaller and more portable versions exist, such as the Weber Smokey Joe. The kettle grill is composed of a lid, cooking grid, charcoal grid, lower chamber, venting system, and legs. Some models include an ash catcher pan and wheels. The lower chamber that holds the charcoal is shaped like a kettle, giving the grill its name. The key to the kettle grill’s cooking abilities is its shape. The kettle design distributes heat more evenly. When the lid is placed on the grill, it prevents flare-ups from dripping grease, and allows heat to circulate around the food as it cooks. It also holds in flavor-enhancing smoke produced by the dripping grease or from smoking wood added to the charcoal fire.

The Weber kettle grill has bottom vents that also dispatch ash into a pan below the bowl. Most kettle grills can be adapted for indirect cooking.

The kettle design allows the griller to configure the grill for indirect cooking (or barbecuing) as well. For indirect cooking, charcoal is piled on one or both sides of the lower chamber and a water pan is placed in the empty space to one side or between the charcoal. Food is then placed over the water pan for cooking. The venting system consists of one or more vents in the bottom of the lower chamber and one or more vents in the top of the lid. Normally, the lower vent(s) are to be left open until cooking is complete, and the vent(s) in the lid are adjusted to control airflow. Restricted airflow means lower cooking temperature and slower burning of charcoal.

Cart[edit]

The charcoal cart grill is quite similar in appearance to a typical gas grill. The cart grill can be rectangular or kettle in design, has a hinged lid, cooking grid, charcoal grid, and is mounted to a cart with wheels and side tables. Most cart grills have a way to adjust heat, either through moving the cooking surface up, the charcoal pan down, through venting, or a combination of the three. Cart grills often have an ash collection drawer for easy removal of ashes while cooking. Their rectangular design makes them usable for indirect cooking as well. Charcoal cart grills, with all their features, can make charcoal grilling nearly as convenient as gas grilling. Cart grills can also be quite expensive.

Barrel[edit]

In its most primitive form, the barrel grill is nothing more than a 55 US gallons (210 l; 46 imp gal) steel barrel sliced in half lengthwise. Hinges are attached so the top half forms the lid and the bottom half forms the charcoal chamber. Vents are cut into the top and bottom for airflow control. A chimney is normally attached to the lid. Charcoal grids and cooking grids are installed in the bottom half of the grill, and legs are attached. Like kettle grills, barrel grills work well for grilling as well as true barbecuing. For barbecuing, lit charcoal is piled at one end of the barrel and food to be cooked is placed at the other. With the lid closed, heat can then be controlled with vents. Fancier designs available at stores may have other features, but the same basic design does not change.

Ceramic cooker[edit]

The ceramic cooker design has been around for roughly 3,000 years.[10] The shichirin, a Japanese grill traditionally of ceramic construction, has existed in its current form since the Edo period however more recent designs have been influenced by the mushikamado now more commonly referred to as a kamado.[11] The ceramic cooker is more versatile than the kettle grill as the ceramic chamber retains heat and moisture more efficiently. Ceramic cookers are equally adept at grilling, smoking, and barbecuing foods.

Tandoor oven[edit]

Main article: Tandoor

A tandoor is used for cooking certain types of Irani, Indian and Pakistani food, such as tandoori chicken and naan. In a tandoor, the wood fire is kept in the bottom of the oven and the food to be cooked is put on long skewers and inserted into the oven from an opening on the top so the meat items are above the coals of the fire. This method of cooking involves both grilling and oven cooking as the meat item to be cooked sees both high direct infrared heat and the heat of the air in the oven. Tandoor ovens often operate at temperatures above 500 °F (260 °C) and cook the meat items very quickly.

Portable charcoal[edit]

Portable charcoal grills are small but convenient for traveling, picnicking, and camping. This one is loaded with lump charcoal. The legs fold up and lock onto the lid so it can be carried by the lid handle.

The portable charcoal grill normally falls into either the brazier or kettle grill category. Some are rectangular in shape. A portable charcoal grill is usually quite compact and has features that make it easier to transport, making it a popular grill for tailgating. Often the legs fold up and lock into place so the grill will fit into a car trunk more easily. Most portable charcoal grills have venting, legs, and lids, though some models do not have lids (making them, technically, braziers.) There are also grills designed without venting to prevent ash fallout for use in locations which ash may damage ground surfaces. Some portable grills are designed to replicate the function of a larger more traditional grill/brazier and may include spit roasting as well as a hood and additional grill areas under the hood area.

Hybrids[edit]

A hybrid grill is a grill used for outdoor cooking with charcoal and natural gas or liquid propane and can cook in the same manner as a traditional outdoor gas grill. The manufacturers claim that it combines the convenience of an outdoor gas grill with the flavor and cooking techniques of a charcoal and wood grill.

In addition to providing the cooking heat, the gas burners in a hybrid grill can be used to quickly start a charcoal/wood fire or to extend the length of a charcoal/wood cooking session.

Some of the newer hybrid stoves cater more towards the emergency preparedness/survivalist market with the ability to use propane, charcoal or wood. Generally, they have a propane burner that can be removed and charcoal or wood substituted as the fuel source. Many have features similar to the portable charcoal grill with a volcano shaped cooking chamber for efficiency, the ability to be folded or collapsed for a smaller footprint and a carrying case for easy portability.

Commercial grills[edit]

A commercial barbecue typically has a larger cooking capacity than traditional household grills, as well as featuring a variety of accessories for added versatility. End users of commercial barbecue grills include for-profit operations such as restaurants, caterers, food vendors and grilling operations at food fairs, golf tournaments and other charity events, as well as competition cookers. The category lends itself to originality, and many commercial barbecue grills feature designs unique to their respective manufacturer.

Model Mobile-SLPX Commercial Barbecue Grill

Commercial barbecue grills can be stationary or transportable. An example of a stationary grill is a built-in pit grill, for indoor or outdoor use. Construction materials include bricks, mortar, concrete, tile and cast iron. Most commercial barbecue grills, however, are mobile, allowing the operator to take the grill wherever the job is. Transportable commercial barbecue grills can be units with removable legs, grills that fold, and grills mounted entirely on trailers.

Trailer mounted commercial barbecue grills run the gamut from basic grill cook tops to pit barbecue grills and smokers, to specialized roasting units that cook whole pigs, chicken, ribs, corn and other vegetables.

Parts[edit]

Many gas grill components can be replaced with new parts, adding to the useful life of the grill. Though charcoal grills can sometimes require new cooking grids and charcoal grates, gas grills are much more complex, and require additional components such as burners, valves, and heat shields.

Burners[edit]

A gas grill burner is the central source of heat for cooking food. Gas grill burners are typically constructed of: stainless steel, aluminized steel, or cast iron, occasionally porcelain-coated.

Burners are hollow with gas inlet holes and outlet ‘ports’. For each inlet there is a separate control on the control panel of the grill. The most common type of gas grill burners are called ‘H’ burners and resemble the capital letter ‘H’ turned on its side. Another popular shape is oval. There are also ‘Figure 8’, ‘Bowtie’ and ‘Bar’ burners. Other grills have a separate burner for each control. These burners can be referred to as ‘Pipe’, ‘Tube’, or ‘Rail’ burners. They are mostly straight since they are only required to heat one portion of the grill.

Gas is mixed with air in venturi tubes or simply ‘venturis’. Venturis can be permanently attached to the burner or removable. At the other end of the venturi is the gas valve, which is connected to the control knob on the front of the grill.

A metal screen covers the fresh air intake of each venturi to keep spiders from clogging the tube with their nests.

Cooking grid[edit]

Cooking grids, also known as cooking grates, are the surface on which the food is cooked in a grill. They are typically made of:

  • Stainless steel – usually the most expensive and longest-lasting option, may carry a lifetime warranty
  • Porcelain-coated cast iron – the next best option after stainless, usually thick and good for searing meat
  • Porcelain-coated steel – will typically last as long as porcelain-coated cast iron, but not as good for searing
  • Cast iron – more commonly used for charcoal grills, cast iron must be constantly covered with oil to protect it from rusting
  • Chrome-plated steel – usually the least expensive and shortest-lasting material

Cooking grids used over gas or charcoal barbecues will allow fat and oil to drop between the grill bars, which will cause flare up where flames can burn and blacken food long before it is safely cooked.

To reduce the occurrence of flare up, some barbecues may be fitted with plates, baffles or other means to intercept the dripping flammable fluids.

Most high end barbecue grills use stainless steel grates, but there is a health benefit to using bare cast iron grids. When cast iron is used to cook food containing high level of acidity, such as lentils, tomatoes, lemonade sauces, or marinades with strong vinegar content, there is increased iron dietary intake.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, iron and iron deficiency is a particularly important issue for pregnant women and young children.[12]

The longer and hotter the grilling temperature, the more iron is infused into the food.[13] This process can only take place with plain cast iron grids – without any form of porcelain or other types of coating. The downside to bare cast iron is that it sticks to the food and can be hard to clean.

Rock grate[edit]

Rock grates are placed directly above the burner and are designed to hold lava rock or ceramic briquettes. These materials serve a dual purpose – they protect the burner from drippings which can accelerate the deterioration of the burner, and they disperse the heat from the burner more evenly throughout the grill.

Heat shield[edit]

Heat shields are also known as burner shields, heat plates, heat tents, radiation shields, or heat angles. They serve the same purpose as a rock grate and rock, protecting the burner from corrosive meat drippings and dispersing heat. They are more common in newer grills. Heat shields are lighter, easier to replace and harbor less bacteria than rocks.

Like lava rock or ceramic briquettes, heat shields also vaporize the meat drippings and ‘infuse’ the meat with more flavor.

Valves[edit]

Valves can wear out or become rusted and too difficult to operate requiring replacement. A valve is unlike a burner, a replacement valve usually must be an exact match to the original in order to fit properly. As a consequence, many grills are disposed of when valves fail due to a lack of available replacements.

If a valve seems to be moving properly, but no gas is getting to the burner, the most common cause for this is debris in the venturi. This impediment can be cleared by using a long flexible object.

Cover[edit]

A barbecue cover is a textile product specially designed to fit over a grill so as to protect it from outdoor elements such as sun, wind, rain and snow, and outdoor contaminants such as dust, pollution, and bird droppings.

Barbecue covers are commonly made with a vinyl outer shell and a heat-resistant inner lining, as well as adjustable straps to secure the cover in windy conditions. The cover may have a polyester surface, often with polyurethane coating on the outer surface, with polyvinyl chloride liner.

Indoor grills[edit]

While live-fire cooking is difficult indoors without heavy-duty ventilation, it is possible to simulate some of the effects of a live-fire grill with indoor equipment. The simplest design is known as a grill pan, which is a type of heavy frying pan with raised grill lines to hold the food off the floor of the pan and allow drippings to run off. Otherwise, a simple frying pan can do a reasonable job of grilling.

Groups[edit]

A group of barbecue grills is known as a pride.[14]B

from wikipedia

Hoover Vacuum Cleaner

Hoover is an American vacuum cleaner company that started out as an American floor care manufacturer based in North Canton, Ohio. It also established a major base in the United Kingdom and for most of the early-and-mid-20th century it dominated the electric vacuum cleaner industry, to the point where the “Hoover” brand name became synonymous with vacuum cleaners and vacuuming in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The Hoover Company in the United States was part of the Whirlpool Corporation but sold in 2006 to Techtronic Industries for $107 million. Hoover UK/Europe split from Hoover U.S. in 1993 and was acquired by Candy, a company based in Brugherio, Italy. It currently uses the same Hoover logo Techtronic uses outside Europe with the slogan “Generation Future”.

In addition to producing floorcare products, Hoover was also an iconic domestic appliance brand in Europe, particularly well known for its washing machines and tumble dryers in the UK and Ireland, and also had significant sales in many parts of Europe. Today, the Hoover Europe brand, as part of the portfolio of brands owned by Candy Group (which is also owned by Bain Capital), remains a major player in the European white goods and floor care sectors in a number of countries.

History[edit]

Hoover factory and salesmen.

The first upright vacuum cleaner was invented in June 1908 by Canton, Ohio department store janitor and occasional inventor James Murray Spangler (1848-1915). Spangler was an asthmatic, and suspecting the carpet sweeper he was using at work was the cause of his ailment, he created a basic suction-sweeper by mounting an electric fan motor on a Bissell brand carpet sweeper then adding a soap box and a broom handle. After refining the design and obtaining a patent for the Electric Suction Sweeper[1] he set about producing it himself, assisted by his son, who helped him assemble the machines, and his daughter, who assembled the dust bags. Production was slow, completing just 2-3 machines a week.

Spangler then gave one of his Electric Suction Sweepers to his cousin Susan Troxel Hoover (1846-1925),[2] who used it at home. Impressed with the machine, she told her husband and son about it. William Henry “Boss” Hoover (August 18, 1849 – February 25, 1932)[3] and son Herbert William Hoover, Sr. (October 30, 1877 – September 16, 1954)[4] were leather goods manufacturers in North Canton, Ohio, which at the time was called New Berlin.[5] Hoover’s leather goods business was not too threatened by the introduction of the motor car, but seeing a marketing opportunity, Hoover bought the patent from Spangler in 1908, founding the Electric Suction Sweeper Company with $36,000 capital, retaining Spangler as production supervisor with pay based on royalties in the new business. Spangler continued to contribute to the company, patenting numerous further Suction Sweeper designs until his death in 1915, when the company name was changed to the Hoover Suction Sweeper Company, with Spangler’s family continuing to receive royalties from his original patent until 1925.[6]

Hoover tents and factory.

Henry Dreyfuss and Hoover[edit]

Henry Dreyfuss

Patent for Dreyfuss’ 150 design

In the early 1930s the company retained the services of Henry Dreyfuss, an up-and-coming industrial designer, to give the Hoover line-up a much needed update. Prior to Dreyfuss’s involvement with the company, the majority of the machines manufactured consisted of a black motor and an aluminum base; this was the norm for more than twenty years. When Hoover introduced the ‘Hedlite’ in 1932, it was rather awkward and unattractive.[7] Dreyfuss integrated this into the housing of the cleaner, making the machine more aesthetically pleasing and echoing the trends of streamline design. Of Dreyfuss’s designs before 1936, he was able to update the basic Hoover machine and keep the company’s products relevant with the times. In 1935, he was commissioned to completely redesign the Hoover cleaner. In 1936, for a fee of 25,000 USD, Dreyfuss sold Hoover the design which would become the Model 150 cleaner. For the first time since the introduction of the Hoover vacuum cleaner, the mechanical workings were completely concealed from sight by a Bakelite cover. This cover was a tear-drop styled shell, which seamlessly incorporated the headlight. Also, he totally revamped the base of the machine. Since the release of this design, all Hoover cleaners consisted of a fluid base and a hood to cover the electric motor. These designs suggested efficiency, cleanliness, and speed. Dreyfuss brought excitement and style to an otherwise mundane household appliance. His final design for the Hoover Company was the 1957 Convertible.

Development[edit]

Faced with a total lack of interest by the public in his expensive and unfamiliar new gadget, Hoover placed an ad in the Saturday Evening Post offering customers ten days free use of his vacuum cleaner to anyone who requested it. Using a network of local retailers to facilitate the offer, Hoover thus developed a national network of retailers for the vacuums. By the end of 1908, the company had sold 372 Model 0s. By 1912, sales had been made to Norway, France, Russia, Belgium, Holland and Scotland.

In 1919, Gerald Page-Wood – an art director of Erwin, Wasey & Company, Hoover’s advertising agency – came up with a succinct slogan which summed up the Hoover’s cleaning action: ‘It Beats…as it Sweeps…as it Cleans’. At this time, it referred to the action of the revolving brushes, which vibrated the carpet and helped loosen the trodden-in grit. This offered an advantage over competitors machines, which used suction alone to remove dirt, and therefore were not as efficient as The Hoover. Seven years later, the famous slogan would adapt to even more significance.

Hoover’s business began to flourish, and, a year after Hoover acquired the patent from Spangler, he established a research and development department for his new business. By 1926, Hoover had developed the ‘beater bar’ – a metal bar attached to the rotating brush roll, situated in the floor nozzle cavity of the upright vacuum cleaner.[8] Introduced on Models 543 and 700, the beater bars alternated with the sweeping brushes to vibrate the carpet while sucking. It provided a more distinct ‘tap’ than the bristle tufts used on the former machines, and led to a 101% increase in efficiency. This cleaning action was marketed by Hoover as “Positive Agitation”. ‘It Beats…as it Sweeps…as it Cleans’ rang more true now than ever.

The Model 200 Duster and Model 575 upright, which used the same motor

In 1929, Hoover introduced the Model 200 Duster. This would be their first attempt at a cylinder cleaner. It used a Model 575 motor with a modified suction impeller, which was mounted on a unique aluminum body with runners, allowing the cleaner to be pulled behind the user. The Duster was produced for only three months and roughly 9,000 were made.

Herbert W. Hoover, Sr. took over as president of the company in 1922 and as Chairman of the Board of the Hoover Company in 1932.[5]

1930 saw the introduction of the world’s first handheld vacuum cleaner, the Hoover Dustette. The good design and exceptional durability of these machines mean many are still in service today, some at over 80 years old.

In 1932, Hoover introduced a new optional headlamp called the Hoover Hedlite on Models 425, 750 and 900. By March 1932, it had become standard equipment on Models 750 and 900, and a $5 extra-cost option on Model 425. The Hoover Hedlite illuminated the floor ahead of the cleaner, useful for dimly-lit rooms and corridors, and under furniture. Several new slogans mentioned the light, including ‘It shows you the dirt you never knew you had!’, and ‘It lights where it’s going…it’s clean where it’s gone!’.

In 1936, Hoover introduced top-of-the-line Model 150. It had a time to empty bag indicator;[9] automatic height adjustment; a magnesium body, which made it weigh less than previous models; instant tool conversion; and a two-speed motor. One of the first Dreyfuss designs for Hoover, it was the symbol of the machine age; the beautiful Bakelite hood hid the entire motor from view and there were no protruding knobs or gadgets. It was the first Hoover cleaner that was not of the traditional “coffee can” style, which Hoover had been using since its earliest years. The cleaner sold from 1936 to 1939 and was priced at $80 (which is about $1,500 to $2,000 in today’s money).[citation needed] Two other lower priced Hoovers sold along with the 150: the Model 25 (1937–38),[10] which was the middle of the line cleaner priced at $65; and the Model 300 (1935–38)[11] which became the bottom of the line cleaner and sold at $49.75. Due to the backdrop of the Depression, Hoover produced only 166,000 150s in its three-year production run.

From 1941 to 1945, Hoover ceased all vacuum cleaner production and converted the North Canton, Ohio factory to support the war effort. When the war ended in 1945, Hoover started producing cleaners again and unveiled the Model 27 for post-war America to enjoy.

In 1950, Hoover introduced the Veriflex, which was the first rubberized suction hose in the industry.[12] Other cleaners at the time were using cloth-braided hoses, which would deteriorate and lose suction over time.

In 1954 Herbert W. Hoover Jr. took over the presidency of the company from his father.[13] A nephew of the founder, H. Earl Hoover, also served as chairman and honorary director.[14]

Debut ad for the Hoover Model 29, the first Hoover cleaner made in red

The sombre and restrained colors of the previous decades gave way to bright, striking modern color-schemes, starting with the Hoover Model 29 in 1950, which was red instead of the regular black and brown colors of the past.[15] This was part of their policy of the continual development and modernization of their output.

In 1957 Hoover introduced the Convertible Model 65 (the De Luxe 652 in the UK). It was the last machine designed by Henry Dreyfuss, the industrial designer who had worked with the company since the early 1930s.[16] This cleaner introduced what Hoover called ‘Automatic Shift’, a system whereby the tool converter plugged into the rear of the cleaner. This was not a new idea: instant tool conversion had been introduced in 1936 with the Model 150 Cleaning Ensemble. However, new to Model 65, and slightly later in Britain on the 652A, was the introduction of a switch which automatically shifted the motor to a higher speed as the converter was inserted. The Convertible, or the Senior, in Britain, remains Hoover’s worldwide best-selling cleaner. Although the domestic line was finally discontinued in 1993, a version called the Guardsman is still available in the commercial sector.

1963 saw the introduction of the Dial-A-Matic in the US – sold in Australia as the Dynamatic, and in Britain as the Convertible. This was the first-ever clean-air upright cleaner. The clean-air principle is similar to the flow of air through a cylinder/canister cleaner. Rather than the dirt passing directly through the suction fan and being blown into the bag, it passes through the bag first, leaving only clean air to pass through the fan. This principle was soon adopted by many manufacturers, and continues to be used today. Also, the machine was constructed out of hard plastic. Hoover produced this cleaner from 1963 until the late 1970s in America.

In the summer of 1969, Hoover further refined the Dial-A-Matic’s design when they launched the ‘Powerdrive’ self-propulsion system on the Hoover model 1170. This idea took much of the effort out of pushing the cleaner, because, by using a system of gears, wheels, and belts, the cleaner used its own power to drive itself forward and backwards, the speed and direction being controlled entirely by the user though the ‘Triple-Action’ handgrip. The powerdrive feature on the model 1170 was so efficient, the user could push the bulky machine forward with one finger, and the feature could also be disengaged with a button on the handgrip so the machine could travel easily from room to room with the motor turned off, the machine was very difficult to push when the motor was turned off and the powerdrive was still activated. This was also the first vacuum cleaner available commercially that used the self-propulsion system. This extra technology made the Dial-A-Matic even heavier than the original, and at around $150, it was very expensive. The ‘Powerdrive’ system was carried over into the Concept range in 1978. The powerdrive system was later renamed “Self Propelled”. Hoover continued to use this feature on many products of the 1980s and 1990s. It is still being used today by Hoover and numerous other companies.

In 1986, the Hoover family sold the company.[13] It was acquired by Maytag Corporation in 1989.[13]

On Friday, 6 March 2009, Hoover confirmed that it would discontinue production of washing machines and other laundry products at its Merthyr Tydfil factory, Mid Glamorgan from Saturday, 14 March 2009; giving the reason, the company stated that it could no longer manufacture competitively priced laundry products at the plant.

Hoover had initially announced its closure intentions on Tuesday, 18 November 2008, beginning a period of staff consultation. The company was established in the town over sixty years ago, its factory at Pentrebach, Merthyr Tydfil, opening on 12 October 1948.

Though 337 jobs were lost because of this decision, Hoover UK anticipated retaining its headquarters, logistics, storage and after sales service functions at the site, with some 113 workers retained.

Slogans[edit]

1937 Hoover ad by Australian photographer Max Dupain

  • “However clean, Hoover cleaner” – 1912
  • “Just run the Hoover over” – 1918
  • “A Hoovered home is as clean as it looks” – 1918
  • “Don’t compromise with dirt. Have a Hoover.” – 1918[17]
  • “It Beats…as it Sweeps…as it Cleans” – 1919
  • “It shows you the dirt you never knew you had” – 1932
  • “It lights where it’s going…it’s clean where it’s gone” – 1935
  • “It Lights…as it Beats…as it Sweeps…as it Cleans” – 1935
  • “Give her a Hoover and you give her the best” – 1938
  • “You’ll be happier with a Hoover” – 1948
  • “Hoover fine appliances around the house….around the world” – 1954
  • “The cleaner that walks on air” – 1957-69, for the Constellation canister cleaner.
  • “We’re the same company that makes the vacuum cleaners” – late 1950s-early 1960s, in advertising for non-floor care appliances Hoover manufactured for a few years.
  • “Floorcare for people who care” – 1962
  • “Hoover. Helping you has made us a household word” – 1971
  • “Insist on Hoover” – 1974
  • “America trusts Hoover to take care of its homes” – 1977
  • “America trusts Hoover” – 1984
  • “Hoover keeps making it better” – 1986
  • “Hoover invented it” – 1988
  • “Nobody does it like You” – 1993, 2010
  • “Deep down you want Hoover” – 1998
  • “Hoover gets it” – 2004
  • “America loves its Hoovers” – 2007
  • “Hoover…Nobody Does it Like You” – 2008–2013
  • “I Love My Hoover” 2013–Present

Popular Hoover machines[edit]

The Junior: Introduced by Hoover Limited (UK) in the 1930s, the Hoover Junior is a smaller upright type vacuum for apartments or small houses which was easy to carry around. The Junior was very popular in the UK; Hoover sold millions of them, and it became the biggest selling vacuum there. Various models were produced, with the final machine being manufactured in 1987. Hoover Limited made Juniors for export to the US from the mid-1960s to the late 1970s. The exported Juniors were converted to American electrical standards by The Hoover Company in North Canton, Ohio. Finding a Hoover Junior in the USA is quite rare. The Junior was never referred to as such in the USA; it was tagged in official Hoover literature as the Lightweight Upright.

The Dirtsearcher: Introduced again by Hoover Limited (UK) in 1969, was a development of the Junior with a Model 638 style headlamp fitted in place of the tool adaptor cover at the front. This model the 1354 went on to be the most successful UK Hoover manufactured model selling in both European and Commonwealth markets, however it was never sold in the US, although there were 110V versions of the UK-market Juniors sold in Canada (such as the 1354A). They were sold alongside the Junior and Senior/Ranger models becoming the now rare models U1016 and U1040.

The Portable: The Hoover Portable was launched by Hoover in 1963. It is a “Suitcase” type canister that did not have wheels; you would tug it around with you as you clean. When finished, you would store the hose, attachments, and power cord inside the machine. In 1969, Hoover added wheels to the Portable. The Portable was manufactured until 1978. Also, it used the same motor as the Hoover Dial-A-Matic, the first clean-air upright.

The Constellation: In 1954, Hoover introduced the Model 82 Constellation. It was a radically new design in cylinder and tank cleaners. Designed by Henry Dreyfuss,[18] it represented America’s obsession with the space race. Its spherical shape impersonated developing space technology. Its most memorable attribute was the ability to “walk on air”, which eliminated the need for casters, wheels or runners. The cleaner was made mobile by using its exhaust air, which caused the cleaner to lift from the floor and float behind the user (starting with the Model 84). This was an engineering marvel in and of itself. The Constellation cleaner remained extremely popular in its close to 25-year run, with minor design modifications. The machine was discontinued in the mid-1970s with the introduction of the Hoover Celebrity. The machine was so fondly remembered that it was reintroduced and sold from 2006 to 2009.

Model 28: Introduced in 1946, Hoover produced over two million of this model for post-war America.[19] It sold from 1946 to 1950.

Model 63: In 1953, Hoover debuted the ‘deluxe’ Model 63 for $116.95. It was the first Hoover to utilize a full wrap around bumper and a completely disposable dust bag. The cleaner was styled in two-tone baby blue (base) and navy blue (everything except the base). It was an extremely popular model and sold over four million units. The machine was produced from 1953 to 1956. It was sold, in smaller numbers, in the UK, as the model 638. Again, this machine was designed by Henry Dreyfuss.[15]

Hoovermatic; A long running line of top-loading washing machines which ran from 1948 until 1992, sold mainly in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Hoovermatics were also sold in North America under the Washdog name. The machines used a unique washing action which made use of an impeller (known as a “Pulsator”) which span at high speed to create a moving current of water in the wash tub that dragged the laundry through the water.

The Convertible: 1957 ushered in the “long, low and rarin’ to go” Convertible.[16] The name derives from the cleaner’s ability to ‘automatically shift’ into a higher speed upon insertion of the tool converter for more powerful above the floor cleaning. Beginning with the Model 65, it soon became one of the most popular and well known cleaners in American history. The Convertible line was in production from 1957 to the early 1990s, and is still sold in variations in the commercial sector. The “Convertible” was also widely sold in the UK under the name “Senior” the Senior Cleaners were viewed to be the model for larger homes, and although it never outsold the Junior in Britain, it was still a massively popular cleaner.

The word “hoover”[edit]

In the UK, Ireland and Australia the term “hoover” (properly as a common noun) has long been colloquially synonymous with “vacuum cleaner” and the verb “to vacuum” (e.g., “you were hoovering the carpet”), referring to the Hoover Company’s dominance there during the early 20th century. Despite Hoover’s no longer being the top seller of vacuum cleaners in the UK, the term “hoover” has remained as a genericised trademark.[20][21]

Over the years, Hoover has expanded into other product lines, including kitchen appliances, hair dryers, speakers, and industrial equipment.

The Hoover Historical Center[edit]

Boyhood home of Hoover vacuum cleaner founder William “Boss” Hoover and what is now the Hoover Historical Center, built 1853

In the 1970s, the Hoover Company opened a museum in the old Hoover home in North Canton, Ohio on the campus of Walsh University. It is called The Hoover Historical Center, and is dedicated to the history of the Hoover company in Canton. The museum exhibits include a number of non-Hoover hand-operated vacuum cleaners from before the company started, and displays of Hoover products throughout the company’s history. Also on display are some of the munitions the company produced during World War II to help the war effort, and items personal to the Hoover family.

Ownership transitions[edit]

The Hoover plant in North Canton, Ohio.

The company became publicly traded in the 1940s. Stock in Hoover was first sold on August 6, 1943, allowing the company to expand. In 1985, Hoover was purchased by the Chicago Pacific Corporation, and in 1989, Chicago Pacific was purchased by Maytag.

In 1993, the Hoover Trading Company and Hoover UK merged to become the Hoover European Appliances Group. In 1995, Candy Group acquired the Hoover European Appliances Group in its entirety with the exclusive rights on the brand for the whole of Europe (including all territories of the former-Soviet Union), North Africa and selected countries in the Middle East.[22]

In 2004, Maytag announced that it would consolidate its corporate office and back office operations in Newton, Iowa and close almost all of Hoover’s overlapping functions. This effectively meant that most white-collar jobs at Hoover’s North Canton location would be eliminated. The company had previously closed another manufacturing facility in Jackson Township, Stark County, Ohio, and the facility was sold to a church. Like many manufacturing companies in the U.S., Hoover is facing pressures as consumers demand lower-priced goods. Hoover has operations in Mexico, where operating costs are lower than in the U.S.

After Maytag was acquired by Whirlpool in 2006, that firm reached an agreement to sell Hoover to Hong Kong, China-based firm Techtronic Industries.[23] TTI has announced its intention to close the original plant in North Canton in September 2007.

Hoover in Australia[edit]

Since 1954, the Hoover factory at Meadowbank has been manufacturing washing machines and other products. A subsidiary of the US company, Hoover, it merged with Chicago Pacific in 1985 and Maytag in 1989.

In 1994, Hoover Australia was to be listed as a public company with a six-monthly operating profit of $8,850,000. This sparked a fight between Email Limited and Southcorp, two of Australia’s largest white goods manufacturers for a commercial sale. Both were eager to strengthen their market share and further monopolise the whitegoods industry. By December 1994, Southcorp announced a successful bid to buy Hoover Australia. In March 1996, Southcorp began a big rationalisation, sacking workers in maintenance, stores, administration and supervision at the Hoover factory.[24]

At the same time, Southcorp was announcing a big increase in their share price.[clarification needed] In April, 1999, the sale of Southcorp Appliances, including Hoover, Dishlex and Chef, was official with Email now obtaining a conservative 60 per cent share of the Australian white goods market.[citation needed]

Prior to the Southcorp buy out, Hoover Australia operated as a US subsidiary with its own administration, sales and marketing, large maintenance and engineering departments, a service division and a much larger production workforce. At this time, in the early ’90s, Hoover was making healthy profits, as a result of investment in new technology and machinery through the late ’80s, followed by a big drive towards quality improvement combined with a very flexible workforce.[24]

After the Southcorp takeover, a culture of fear was introduced based on a widespread campaign to strip all the indirect labour from the workforce, and a myth that the factory was inefficient and unproductive. Every month it was reported the factory was losing $1 million or more. Morale at the factory went into a downward spiral. This was followed by decisions to stop production of barrel and upright vacuum cleaners, next was the end of the front loader washing machine. Vacuum cleaners and front loaders were replaced with imported products, the plastic moulding production was contracted out, the factory was being stripped of production, volume and jobs. A cost reduction campaign followed with good quality components being replaced by inferior cheap components and a complete breakdown of any real preventative maintenance program, which gave way to a large number of machine and equipment breakdowns. The reality, rather than the myth, was the Hoover Meadowbank site was being run into the ground by corporate decisions.[24]

By the late 1990s Email had finally closed the Meadowbank factory and integrated its white goods manufacturing into the Simpson plant in South Australia. The vacuum cleaner side of the business was sold to Godfreys. Several years later, Email itself was sold and broken up. The white goods division of Email was then sold to Electrolux. Shortly after taking ownership, Electrolux ceased leasing the Hoover brandname and the manufacturing and supply of Hoover white goods ceased in Australia.[citation needed]

Free flights promotion[edit]

In 1992, the British division of Hoover announced the Hoover free flights promotion, the demand for which rose far beyond the company’s expectations, resulting in major costs and public relations problems for the British division and Maytag, which eventually led to its sale to the Italian manufacturer Candy. In 1993, Sandy Jack became the first person in the United Kingdom to take Hoover to court over the Hoover free flights promotion. Upon the decision in Hoover v. Sandy Jack at Sheriff Court in Kirkcaldy, Fife, a precedent was set. Hoover Holiday Pressure Group furthered court action against Hoover at St. Helens in Merseyside.

Current products[edit]

The products sold under the Hoover brand vary increasingly from one market to the next. For example, in the United States, the Hoover brand is used exclusively to sell floorcare products produced by TTI. Meanwhile,in the UK and most of Europe, Hoover branding appears on Candy Group products including white goods such as washing machines, dishwashers, and refrigerators, as well as floorcare products. Current details of the product range available to consumers can be found by visiting the Hoover website for the market of interest.

Competition[edit]

Over the past decade,[when?] Hoover has lost its dominant position in the UK and in the United States and now faces strong competition from numerous brands.

In the United States, Hoover’s competition includes: Royal, Dirt Devil, and Vax (all of which are owned by Hoover’s Hong Kong owner Techtronic Industries);[25] Kirby; Eureka; Dyson; Electrolux; Oreck; Panasonic; Bissell; and Kenmore (the house brand of American store chain Sears, which is manufactured predominantly by Panasonic and Sanyo).

Dyson and Electrolux lead the list of UK competitors, followed by Bosch, Dirt Devil, SEBO, Vax, Morphy Richards, Miele, Bissell, Numatic (maker of the famous “Henry” cylinder cleaner), Zanussi, Russell Hobbs, LG, and others.

from wikipedia

Water Filter

A water filter removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, a chemical process or a biological process. Filters cleanse water to different extents for purposes such as providing agricultural irrigation, accessible drinking water, public and private aquaria, and the safe use of ponds and swimming pools.

Contents

Methods of filtration

Main article: Filtration

Filters use sieving, adsorption, ion exchanges, biological metabolite transfer, and other processes to remove unwanted substances from a quantity of water. And unlike a sieve or screen, a filter can potentially remove particles much smaller than the holes through which its water passes.

Types

Water treatment plant filters

Main article: Water purification

Types of water filters include media filters, screen filters, disk filters, slow sand filter beds, rapid sand filters, cloth filters,[1] and biological filters such as algae scrubbers.

Point-of-use filters

Point-of-use filters for home use include granular-activated carbon filters (GAC) used for carbon filtering, depth filter, metallic alloy filters, microporous ceramic filters, carbon block resin (CBR), microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes. Some filters use more than one filtration method. An example of this is a multi-barrier system. Jug filters can be used for small quantities of drinking water. Some kettles have built-in filters, primarily to reduce limescale buildup.

Flowmatic cartridge style filters are cylinders 10 inches (254 mm) long by 2.5 inches (64 mm) in diameter. They are made by multiple manufactures and are available in 1-50 micron ratings as well as activated carbon. Point-of-use microfiltration devices can be directly installed at water outlets (faucets, showers) in order to protect users against Legionella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Escherichia coli and other potentially harmful water pathogens by providing a barrier to them and/or minimizing patient exposure.

Portable water filters

A sectional view of a personal water filter

Water filters are used by hikers, aid organizations during humanitarian emergencies, and the military. These filters are usually small, portable and lightweight (1-2 pounds/0.5-1.0 kg or less), and usually filter water by working a mechanical hand pump, although some use a siphon drip system to force water through while others are built into water bottles. Dirty water is pumped via a screen-filtered flexible silicon tube through a specialized filter, ending up in a container. These filters work to remove bacteria, protozoa and microbial cysts that can cause disease. Filters may have fine meshes that must be replaced or cleaned, and ceramic water filters must have their outside abraded when they have become clogged with impurities.

These water filters should not be confused with devices or tablets that disinfect water which remove or kill viruses such as hepatitis A and rotavirus.

Certification

Three organizations are accredited by the American National Standards Institute, and each one of them certified products using American National Standard Institute/National Science Foundation standards. Each American National Standards Institute/National Science Foundation standard requires verification of contaminant reduction performance claims, an evaluation of the unit, including its materials and structural integrity, and a review of the product labels and sales literature. Each certifies that home water treatment units meet or exceed National Standard Institute/National Science Foundation and Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards. American National Standard Institute/National Science Foundation standards are issued in two different sets, one for health concerns (such as removal of specific contaminants (Standard 53, Health Effects) and one for aesthetic concerns (Aesthetic Effects, such as improving taste or appearance of water). Certification from these organizations will specify one or both of these specific standards.

NSF International

NSF International as it is now known started out as the National Sanitation Foundation in 1944 at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. [2] The NSF’s water treatment Device Certification Program requires extensive product testing and unannounced audits of production facilities. One goal of this not for profit organization is to provide assurance to consumers that the water treatment devices they are purchasing meet the design, material,and performance requirements of national standards.[2]

Underwriters Laboratories

Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., is an independent, accredited testing and certification organization that certifies home water treatment units which meet or exceed EPA and American National Standard Institute/National Science Foundation drinking water standards of contaminant reduction, aesthetic concerns, structural integrity, and materials safety.

Water Quality Association

The Water Quality Association is a trade organization that tests water treatment equipment, and awards its Gold Seal to systems that meet or exceed ANSI/NSF standards for contaminant reduction performance, structural integrity, and materials safety.

Filters that use reverse osmosis, those labeled as “absolute one micron filters,” or those labeled as certified by an American National Standards Institute (ANSI)- accredited organization to American National Standard Institute/National Science Foundation Standard 53 for “Cyst Removal” provide the greatest assurance of removing Cryptosporidium. As with all filters, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for filter use and replacement.[3]

Water polishing

The term water polishing can refer to any process that removes small (usually microscopic) particulate material, or removes very low concentrations of dissolved material from water. The process and its meaning vary from setting to setting: a manufacturer of aquarium filters may claim that its filters perform water polishing by capturing “micro particles” within nylon or polyester pads just as a chemical engineer can use the term to refer to the removal of magnetic resins from a solution by passing the solution over a bed of magnetic particulate.[4] In this sense, water polishing is simply another term for whole house water filtration systems. Polishing is also done on a large scale in water reclamation plants.[5]

History

During the 19th and 20th centuries, water filters for domestic water production were generally divided into slow sand filters and rapid sand filters (also called mechanical filters and American filters). While there were many small-scale water filtration systems prior to 1800, Paisley, Scotland is generally acknowledged as the first city to receive filtered water for an entire town. The Paisley filter began operation in 1804 and was an early type of slow sand filter. Throughout the 1800s, hundreds of slow sand filters were constructed in the UK and on the European continent. An intermittent slow sand filter was constructed and operated at Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1893 due to continuing typhoid fever epidemics caused by sewage contamination of the water supply.[6] The first continuously operating slow sand filter was designed by Allen Hazen for the city of Albany, New York in 1897.[7] The most comprehensive history of water filtration was published by Moses N. Baker in 1948 and reprinted in 1981.[6]

In the 1800s, mechanical filtration was an industrial process that depended on the addition of aluminum sulfate prior to the filtration process. The filtration rate for mechanical filtration was typically more than 60 times faster than slow sand filters, thus requiring significantly less land area. The first modern mechanical filtration plant in the U.S. was built at Little Falls, New Jersey for the East Jersey Water Company. George W. Fuller designed and supervised the construction of the plant which went into operation in 1902.[8] In 1924, John R. Baylis developed a fixed grid backwash assist system which consisted of pipes with nozzles that injected jets of water into the filter material during expansion.[9

from wikipedia]