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Wine in health

Red wine and resveratrol: Good for your heart?

Red wine and something in red wine called resveratrol might be heart healthy. Find out the facts, and hype, regarding red wine and its impact on your heart.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

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Red wine, in moderation, has long been thought of as heart healthy. The alcohol and certain substances in red wine called antioxidants may help prevent coronary artery disease, the condition that leads to heart attacks.

Any links between red wine and fewer heart attacks aren’t completely understood. But part of the benefit might be that antioxidants may increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) and protect against cholesterol buildup.

While the news about red wine might sound great if you enjoy a glass of red wine with your evening meal, doctors are wary of encouraging anyone to start drinking alcohol, especially if you have a family history of alcohol abuse. Too much alcohol can have many harmful effects on your body.

Still, many doctors agree that something in red wine appears to help your heart. It’s possible that antioxidants, such as flavonoids or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits.

How is red wine heart healthy?

Red wine seems to have heart-healthy benefits. But it’s possible that red wine isn’t any better than beer, white wine or liquor for heart health. There’s still no clear evidence that red wine is better than other forms of alcohol when it comes to possible heart-healthy benefits.

Antioxidants in red wine called polyphenols may help protect the lining of blood vessels in your heart. A polyphenol called resveratrol is one substance in red wine that’s gotten attention.

Resveratrol in red wine

Resveratrol might be a key ingredient in red wine that helps prevent damage to blood vessels, reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) and prevents blood clots. Some research shows that resveratrol could be linked to a lower risk of inflammation and blood clotting, which can lead to heart disease. But other studies found no benefits from resveratrol in preventing heart disease.

More research is needed to determine if resveratrol lowers the risk of inflammation and blood clotting.

The resveratrol in red wine comes from the skin of grapes used to make wine. Because red wine is fermented with grape skins longer than is white wine, red wine contains more resveratrol.

Simply eating grapes, or drinking grape juice, might be one way to get resveratrol without drinking alcohol. Red and purple grape juices may have some of the same heart-healthy benefits of red wine.

Other foods that contain some resveratrol include peanuts, blueberries and cranberries. It’s not yet known how beneficial eating grapes or other foods might be compared with drinking red wine when it comes to promoting heart health. The amount of resveratrol in food and red wine can vary widely.

Resveratrol supplements also are available. Researchers haven’t found any harm in taking resveratrol supplements. But your body can’t absorb most of the resveratrol in the supplements.

How does alcohol help the heart?

Various studies have shown that moderate amounts of all types of alcohol benefit your heart, not just alcohol found in red wine. It’s thought that alcohol:

  • Raises HDL (healthy) cholesterol
  • Reduces the formation of blood clots
  • Helps prevent artery damage caused by high levels of LDL (harmful) cholesterol
  • May improve the function of the layer of cells that line your blood vessels (endothelium)

Drink in moderation — or not at all

Red wine’s potential heart-healthy benefits look promising. Those who drink moderate amounts of alcohol, including red wine, seem to have a lower risk of heart disease.

However, it’s important to understand that studies comparing moderate drinkers to non-drinkers might overestimate the benefits of moderate drinking because non-drinkers might already have health problems. More research is needed before we know whether red wine is better for your heart than are other forms of alcohol, such as beer or spirits.

Neither the American Heart Association nor the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommends that you start drinking alcohol just to prevent heart disease. Alcohol can be addictive and can cause or worsen other health problems.

Drinking too much alcohol increases your risk of:

  • Liver and pancreas diseases
  • Heart failure
  • High blood pressure
  • Certain types of cancer
  • Stroke
  • Accidents, violence and suicide
  • Weight gain and obesity

Avoid alcohol completely if you:

  • Are pregnant
  • Have a personal or strong family history of alcoholism
  • Have a liver or pancreas disease associated with alcohol consumption
  • Have heart failure or a weak heart
  • Take certain medications or a daily aspirin

If you have questions about the benefits and risks of alcohol, talk to your doctor about specific recommendations for you.

If you already drink red wine, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means:

  • Up to one drink a day for women of all ages.
  • Up to one drink a day for men older than age 65.
  • Up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger. The limit for men is higher because men generally weigh more and have more of an enzyme that metabolizes alcohol than women do.

A drink is defined as:

  • 12 ounces (355 milliliters, or mL) of beer
  • 5 ounces (148 mL) of wine
  • 1.5 ounces (44 mL) of 80-proof distilled spirits
 from mayo clinic

wine

Storage of wine is an important consideration for wine that is being kept for long-term aging. While most wine is consumed within 24 hours of purchase, fine wines are often set aside for long-term storage.[1] Wine is one of the few commodities that can improve with age, but it can also rapidly deteriorate if kept in inadequate conditions. The three factors that have the most direct impact on a wine’s condition are light, humidity, and temperature. Historically, the storage of wine was handled by wine merchants. Since the mid-20th century, however, consumers have been increasingly storing their own wine in home-based wine cellars.[2]

The three factors that have the most pronounced effect on wine in storage are light, humidity, and temperature.

Light[edit]

Strong, direct sunlight or incandescent light can adversely react with phenolic compounds in wine and create potential wine faults. Delicate, light-bodied white wines run the greatest risk from light exposure, and for that reason, they are often packaged in darkly tinted wine bottles that offer some protection from the light. Wines packaged in clear, light green and blue colored bottles are the most vulnerable to light, and may need extra precautions for storage. For example, the Champagne house of Louis Roederer uses cellophane wrap to protect its premium cuvee Cristal from light, the wine being packaged in a clear bottle. In the cellar, wines are stored in corrugated boxes or wooden crates to protect the wines from direct light.[1]

Humidity[edit]

Some degree of humidity is required in order to keep wines with cork enclosures from drying out. Even when wine bottles are stored on their sides, one side of the cork is still exposed to air. Should the cork begin to dry out, it can allow oxygen to enter the bottle, filling the ullage space and possibly causing the wine to spoil or oxidize. Excessive humidity can also pose the risk of damaging wine labels, which may hinder identification or hurt potential resale value. Wine experts such as Jancis Robinson note that 75% humidity is often cited as ideal but also that there is very little significant research to definitively establish an optimal range.[2] Concern about humidity is one of the primary reasons why wine experts such as Tom Stevenson recommend that wine should not be kept in a refrigerator since the refrigeration process often includes dehumidifying, which can quickly dry out corks.[1]

Some wine experts debate the importance of humidity for proper wine storage. In the Wine Spectator, writer Matt Kramer cites a French study which claimed that the relative humidity within a bottle is maintained at 100% regardless of the closure used or the orientation of the bottle.[3] However, Alexis Lichine contends that low humidity can still be detrimental to premium wine quality due to the risk of the cork drying out. As a way of maintaining optimal humidity, Lichine recommends spreading half an inch of gravel on the floor of a wine cellar and periodically sprinkling it with some water.[4]

Madeira is exposed to high temperatures during its winemaking process and is thereby able to sustain exposure to higher temperatures more easily than other wines.

Wine is very susceptible to changes in temperature, with temperature control being an important consideration in wine storage. If the wine is exposed to too high a temperature (in excess of 77 °F (25 °C)) for long periods of time, it may be spoiled or become “cooked” and develop off-flavors that taste raisiny or stewed. The exact length of time that a wine is at risk of exposure to high temperatures will vary depending on the wine, with some wines (such as Madeira which is exposed to high temperatures during its winemaking) being able to sustain exposure to high temperatures more easily than other, more delicate wines (such as Riesling). If the wine is exposed to temperatures that are too cold, the wine can freeze and expand, causing the cork to be pushed out or (more usually) the bottle to crack; this will allow more oxygen to be exposed to the wine. Dramatic temperature swings (such as repeated transferring a wine from a warm room to a cool refrigerator) can also cause adverse chemical reactions in the wine that may lead to a variety of wine faults. Most experts, such as Jancis Robinson, recommend that wine be kept at constant temperatures between 50 and 59 °F (10 and 15 °C).[2] Tom Stevenson speculates that 52 °F (11 °C) may be the most ideal temperature for storage and aging.[1]

In general, a wine has a greater potential to develop complexity and a more aromatic bouquet if it is allowed to age slowly in a relatively cool environment. The lower the temperature, the more slowly a wine develops.[5] On average, the rate of chemical reactions in wine doubles with each 18 °F (8 °C) increase in temperature. Wine expert Karen MacNeil recommends keeping wine intended for aging in a cool area with a constant temperature around 55 °F (13 °C). Wine can be stored at temperatures as high as 69 °F (21 °C) without long-term negative effect. Professor Cornelius Ough of the University of California, Davis believes that wine can be exposed to temperatures as high as 120 °F (49 °C) for a few hours and not be damaged.[6]

It is not normally possible to freeze wine in the bottle as there is insufficient room for it to expand as it freezes and the bottle will always crack.

Vibration[edit]

Although anecdotal information regarding the contributions of vibration in wine storage states that it contributes to the accelerated aging of wine with adverse effects, this remains a research area with relatively little data. In a particular study, vibrations of different frequencies have been shown to have their own distinct effect on the chemistry of the wine. The study concludes, “Vibration could be used to accelerate the aging of wine, but in most cases, this may lead to negative effects in wine quality. Therefore, to store red wines with limited changes in physico-chemical properties, vibrations should be minimized.”[7]

Most wine racks are designed to allow a wine to be stored on its side. The thinking behind this orientation is that the cork is more likely to stay moist and not dry out if it is kept in constant contact with the wine. Some wineries package their wines upside down in the box for much the same reason. Research in the late 1990s suggested that the ideal orientation for wine bottles is at a slight angle, rather than completely horizontal. This allows the cork to maintain partial contact with the wine in order to stay damp but also keeps the air bubble formed by a wine’s ullage at the top rather than in the middle of the bottle if the wine is lying on its side. Keeping the ullage near the top, it has been argued, allows for a slower and more gradual oxidation and maturation process. This is because the pressure of the air bubble that is the ullage space rises and falls depending on temperature fluctuation. When exposed to higher temperatures the bubble’s pressure increases (becomes positive relative to the air outside of the bottle), and if the wine is tilted at an angle, this compressed gas will diffuse through the cork and not harm the wine. When the temperature falls the process reverses. If the wine is completely on its side then this action will eject some wine through the cork. Through this “breathing” which can result from variations in temperature, oxygen may be repeatedly introduced into the bottle and as a result can react with the wine. An appropriate and constant temperature is therefore preferred. Additionally, oxidation will occur more rapidly at higher temperatures and gases dissolve into liquids faster the lower the temperature.[8]

Champagne is often recommended to be stored upright rather than lying on its side.

While most wines can benefit from lying on their side, Champagne and other sparkling wines tend to age better if they are kept upright.[1][2] This is because the internal pressure caused by the trapped carbonic gas provides enough humidity and protection from oxygen.[1] Caterer Magazine claims that the preference for upright storage of Champagne is shared by the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC) who conducted an extensive study of Champagnes that were stored in various conditions and orientations. This study found that Champagne stored on its side aged more quickly because oxygen was allowed to seep in after the Champagne corks lost their elasticity due to contact with the moist wine.[9] However, the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC) still recommends storing Champagne on its side, which can be read on their web site at:

http://www.champagne.fr/en/tasting-and-appreciation/art-of-serving-champagne/storing-champagne-bottles

where it is stated:

“Champagne is ready for drinking upon release, matured to perfection in the producer’s cellars.

“It will however keep well for several years if stored on its side in a cool, dark, draft-free place, following the three golden rules of Champagne storage:

  • Constant, low ambient temperature (around 10°C/50°F)
  • Generous humidity
  • No direct exposure to sunlight, noise or excessive vibration.”[10]

Alternative wine closures[edit]

Storing wine that is bottled with alternative wine closures other than cork, such as a bung, have many of the same considerations in regards to temperature and light sensitivity. While humidity and concerns about oxidation are not as pronounced, the relative recent popularity and increased usage of these closures have not given much opportunity for research into the storage and aging potential of wines that use these closures.[2]

Places to store wine[edit]

Since the end of the 20th century, there has been growth in industries relating to wine storage. Some wine connoisseurs may elect to store their wine at home in a dedicated room, closet or cellarette. Other options involve purchases and rentals at off-site wine storage facilities that are specifically designed for the task.

Wine will prematurely develop if stored in an environment that has large temperature variations, particularly if these occur frequently. Temperature control systems ensure the wine cellar temperature is very stable. The variations cause corks to expand and contract which leads to oxidation of the wine.

If wine is stored in conditions that are too dry, the cork will shrink and cause leakage. Too moist, and mould and contamination may occur. Climate Controlled Wine Storage maintains moderate humidity levels (55%-75%) to avoid these problems and assist in the optimum wine development conditions.

Other industries focus on the construction of home wine cellars and wine caves, small rooms or spaces in which to store wine. Others produce smaller wine accessories, such as racks and wine refrigerators.[8] These appliances can feature adjustable temperature interfaces, two chambers for red and white wines and materials which protect the wine from the sun and ambient environment.

Wine preservation and dispensing systems have also been developed that store wine at their optimal temperatures and use nitrogen gas to dispense the wine. Nitrogen gas helps prevent wine from oxidation and premature spoilage.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wine Cellars

Wine can be stored satisfactorily between 7–18 °C (45–64 °F) as long as any variations are gradual. A temperature of 13 °C (55 °F), much like that found in the caves used to store wine in France, is ideal for both short-term storage and long-term aging of wine. Note that wine generally matures differently and more slowly at a lower temperature than it does at a higher temperature.[2] When the temperature swings are significant, 14 degrees or more, it will cause the wine to breathe through the cork which significantly speeds up the aging process. Between 10–14 °C (50–57 °F), wines will age normally.[3]

Wine cellars can be either active or passively cooled. Active wine cellars are highly insulated and need to be properly constructed. They require specialized wine cellar conditioning and cooling systems to maintain the desired temperature and humidity. In a very dry climate, it may be necessary to actively humidify the air, but in most areas this is not necessary. Passive wine cellars must be located in naturally cool and damp areas with minor seasonal and diurnal temperature variations—for example, a basement in a temperate climate. Passive cellars may be less predictable, but cost nothing to operate and are not affected by power outages.

Some wine experts debate the importance of humidity for proper wine storage. In the Wine Spectator, writer Matt Kramer noted a French study which claimed that the relative humidity within a bottle is maintained 100% regardless of the closure used or the orientation of the bottle.[4] However, Alexis Lichine says that low humidity can be a problem because it may cause organic corks to dry prematurely. An inch of gravel covering the floor periodically sprinkled with a little water was recommended to retain the desired humidity.[3]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia